Gene-Diet Interactions in Type 2 Diabetes

Marilyn C Cornelis*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

4 Scopus citations


Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is thought to arise from an interaction between susceptibility genes and a diabetogenic environment. This review summarizes progress pertaining specifically to gene-diet interactions. Recent efforts have been population-based and have focused on established genetic and dietary risk factors for T2D. TCF7L2 × carbohydrate-quality and IRS1 × macronutrient-composition interactions are promising factors, but most studies of gene-diet interactions are conflicting or need follow-up. T2D genetic risk scores are powerful predictors of developing T2D, but whether they can be combined with dietary risk factors merits further study. Lack of statistical power, imprecise diet measures, and conceptual issues surrounding replication all challenge our efforts to characterize interactions. Collaborations are needed for optimal study designs in both hypothesis-testing and hypothesis-generating contexts. Continued investment in studies of gene-diet interactions may lead to novel mechanistic insights into T2D, opportunities for risk stratification, and ultimately to personalized nutrition to prevent the disease.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)302-323
Number of pages22
JournalCurrent Nutrition Reports
Issue number4
StatePublished - Jan 1 2014


  • Carbohydrate
  • Case-control
  • Clinical trial
  • Diet
  • Epidemiology
  • Fiber
  • Gene
  • Genetic risk score
  • Genome-wide association
  • Genome-wide environment interaction
  • Genotype
  • Glucose homeostasis
  • Interaction
  • Mediterranean diet
  • Modification
  • Nutrigenetics
  • Nutrigenomics
  • Nutrition
  • Personalized nutrition
  • Population
  • Risk stratification
  • Saturated fat
  • Type 2 diabetes
  • Western diet

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Food Science
  • Nutrition and Dietetics


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