Gene microarray analysis of human renal cell carcinoma: The effects of HDAC inhibition and retinoid treatment

Trisha S. Tavares, David Nanus, Ximing J. Yang, Lorraine J. Gudas

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

32 Scopus citations


Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor treatments can augment the anti-tumor effects of retinoids in renal cancer cells. We studied the effects of the HDAC inhibitor suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA) and 13-cis retinoic acid (cRA) on two human renal cell carcinoma (RCC) lines. Cells were cultured in the presence of each drug for six days to determine the responses to monotherapy and to combination therapy. The proliferation of SKRC06 was inhibited with cRA treatment; the proliferation of SKRC39 was not. However, both RCC lines were sensitive to growth inhibition by dibutyryl cyclic AMP, with or without 13-cis RA. SAHA alone also reduced cell proliferation in both cell lines. To identify the alterations in gene expression that correlate with the responsiveness to treatment, gene microarray analyses were performed. Several retinoid-regulated genes exhibited much higher mRNA levels in SKRC06 than in SKRC39, even in the absence of drugs; these included crabp2, rar? and cyp26A1. Combination treatment of cells with both SAHA and cRA induced several transcripts with known anti-cancer/immunomodulatory effects, including dhrs9, gata3, il1β, phlda1, txk and vhl. Immunostaining confirmed the decreased expression of gata3 in human RCC specimens compared to normal kidney. Together, our results show that treatment of RCC with cRA and/or SAHA increases the expression of several genes and gene families that result in reduced cell proliferation.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1607-1618
Number of pages12
JournalCancer Biology and Therapy
Issue number10
StatePublished - Oct 2008


  • Atf5
  • Cancer
  • GATA3
  • Kidney
  • Retinoic acid
  • Review
  • SAHA
  • Transcription
  • Trim31

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Molecular Medicine
  • Oncology
  • Pharmacology
  • Cancer Research

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