The generation of ultrashort pulses from quantum cascade lasers (QCLs) has proved to be challenging. It has been suggested that the ultrafast electron dynamics of these devices is the limiting factor for mode locking and, hence, pulse formation. Even so, the clear mode locking of terahertz (THz) QCLs has been demonstrated recently, but the exact mechanism for pulse generation is not fully understood. Here we demonstrate that the dominant factor necessary for active pulse generation is in fact the synchronization between the propagating electronic modulation and the generated THz pulse in the QCL. By using the phase-resolved detection of the electric field in QCLs embedded in metal–metal waveguides, we demonstrate that active mode locking requires the phase velocity of the microwave round-trip modulation to equal the group velocity of the THz pulse. This allows the THz pulse to propagate in phase with the microwave modulation along the gain medium, permitting short-pulse generation. Mode locking was performed on QCLs employing phonon depopulation active regions, permitting the coherent detection of large gain bandwidths (500 GHz) and the generation of 11 ps pulses centered around 2.6 THz when the above “phase-matching” condition is satisfied. This work brings an enhanced understanding of QCL mode locking and will permit new concepts to be explored to generate shorter and more intense pulses from mid-infrared, as well as THz, QCLs.
- Lasers and laser optics
- Mode-locked lasers
- Semiconductor lasers
- Semiconductor lasers, quantum cascade
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
- Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics