Generation of arbitrary lithographic patterns using Bose-Einstein-condensate interferometry

M. F. Fouda, R. Fang, J. B. Ketterson, M. S. Shahriar

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

11 Scopus citations


We propose an arbitrary pattern lithography process using interference of Bose-Einstein condensates (BECs). A symmetric three-pulse Raman atom interferometer (AI) is used to implement the system. The pattern information, in the form of a phase-only mask, is optically encoded into the BEC order parameter in one of the AI arms. The lithographic pattern is represented by a two-dimensional intensity variation, and is transformed into a two-dimensional phase variation in the BEC order parameter via the use of ac-Stark shift induced by a pulsed laser field. The BEC probability distribution of the interference result at the end of the AI is proportional to the required pattern. In order to produce features smaller than the diffraction limit for the used optical elements, we employ a three-dimensional atomic lens system to scale down the resulting pattern. The operating conditions for this lens structure are investigated in order to identify practical constraints. Simulations of the overall system using the parameters of Rb87 BEC were performed to illustrate its functionality. The proposed process, while perhaps not suitable for general purpose usage, may enable the creation of special purpose patterns on a very small scale, with features as small as a few nanometers.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number063644
JournalPhysical Review A
Issue number6
StatePublished - Dec 28 2016

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics


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