Thyroid hormone synthesis requires a normally developed thyroid gland, a properly functioning hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis, and sufficient iodine intake. This article focuses on genetic defects in this axis. Defects that are primarily of developmental origin are discussed in our associated article in this issue . Defects in hormone synthesis usually are associated with the development of a goiter, provided that the bioactivity and action of thyrotropin (TSH) are not impaired. In contrast, hypoplasia of the gland may be caused by developmental defects, bioinactive TSH, or resistance to TSH at the level of the receptor or its signaling pathway. At the other end of the spectrum, hyperthyroidism may result from gain of function mutations in genes regulating growth and function.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health