Background: There is growing evidence that DNA damage caused by mutagens found in tobacco smoke may contribute to the development of coronary heart disease (CHD). In order to bind to DMA many mutagens require metabolic activation by cytochrome P450 (CYP) 1A1 or CYP1A2. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of CYP1A1 and CYP1A2 genotypes on risk of myocardial infarction (Ml) and whether smoking interacts with genotype to modify risk. Methods: Subjects (n = 873) with a first acute non-fatal MI and population based controls (n = 932) living in Costa Rica, matched for age, sex, and area of residence, were genotyped for CYP1A1*2A and CYP1A2*1F by restriction-fragment length polymorphism (RFLP)-PCR, and smoking status was determined by questionnaire. Results: After adjusting for matching variables and potential confounders, no association was observed between CYP1A1 genotype and risk of MI. Compared to individuals with the high inducibility CYP1A2*1A/*1A genotype, the adjusted odds ratio and 95% confidence intervals for risk of MI were 1.19 (0.97 to 1.47) for the *1A/*1F genotype and 1.55 (1.10 to 2.18) for the *1F/*1F genotype. No significant interactions were observed between smoking and either CYP1A1 or CYP1A2 genotype. Conclusions: The low inducibility genotype for CYP1A2 was associated with an increased risk of MI. This effect was independent of smoking status and suggests that a substrate of CYP1A2 that is detoxified rather than activated may play a role in CHD.
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