Cardiomyopathy occurs at significantly higher rates in survivors of childhood cancer than the general population, but few studies have evaluated racial or ethnic disparities, and none have assessed potential genetic factors contributing to this outcome. In this study, childhood cancer survivors of African ancestry exposed to cardiotoxic therapies (anthracyclines and/or heart radiotherapy; n ¼ 246) were compared with cardiotoxic-exposed survivors of European ancestry (n ¼ 1,645) in the St. Jude Lifetime Cohort. Genetic variants were examined using whole-genome sequencing data among survivors of African ancestry, first based on ejection fraction (EF) as a continuous outcome, followed by clinical history of cardiomyopathy. Survivors of African ancestry showed 1.53- and 2.47-fold risks of CTCAE grade 2–4 and grade 3–4 cardiomyopathy than survivors of European ancestry. A novel locus at 1p13.2 showed significant association with EF (rs6689879C: EF reduction ¼ 4.2%; P ¼ 2.8 108) in 246 survivors of African ancestry, which was successfully replicated in 1,645 survivors of European ancestry but with attenuated magnitude (EF reduction ¼ 0.4%; P ¼ 0.042). In survivors of African ancestry, rs6689879C showed a 5.43-fold risk of cardiomyopathy and 1.31-fold risk in those of European ancestry. Among survivors of African ancestry with rs6689879C and CTCAE grade 2–4 cardiomyopathy, the PHTF1 promoter region was hypomethylated. Similar results were observed in survivors of European ancestry, albeit with reduced magnitudes of hypomethylation among those with rs6689879C and CTCAE grade 2–4 cardiomyopathy. PHTF1 was upregulated in human-induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes from patients with doxorubicin-induced cardiomyopathy. These findings have potential implications for long-term cardiac surveillance and up-front cancer care for patients of African ancestry.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cancer Research