Genome-wide association identifies nine common variants associated with fasting proinsulin levels and provides new insights into the pathophysiology of type 2 diabetes

Rona J. Strawbridge, Josée Dupuis, Inga Prokopenko, Adam Barker, Emma Ahlqvist, Denis Rybin, John R. Petrie, Mary E. Travers, Nabila Bouatia-Naji, Antigone S. Dimas, Alexandra Nica, Eleanor Wheeler, Han Chen, Benjamin F. Voight, Jalal Taneera, Stavroula Kanoni, John F. Peden, Fabiola Turrini, Stefan Gustafsson, Carina ZabenaPeter Almgren, David J P Barker, Daniel Barnes, Elaine M. Dennison, Johan G. Eriksson, Per Eriksson, Elodie Eury, Lasse Folkersen, Caroline S. Fox, Timothy M. Frayling, Anuj Goel, Harvest F. Gu, Momoko Horikoshi, Bo Isomaa, Anne U. Jackson, Karen A. Jameson, Eero Kajantie, Julie Kerr-Conte, Teemu Kuulasmaa, Johanna Kuusisto, Ruth J F Loos, Jian'an Luan, Konstantinos Makrilakis, Alisa K. Manning, María Teresa Martínez-Larrad, Narisu Narisu, Maria Nastase Mannila, John Öhrvik, Clive Osmond, Laura Pascoe, Felicity Payne, Avan A. Sayer, Bengt Sennblad, Angela Silveira, Alena Stančcáková, Kathy Stirrups, Amy J. Swift, Ann Christine Syvänen, Tiinamaija Tuomi, Ferdinand M. Van't Hooft, Mark Walker, Michael N. Weedon, Weijia Xie, Björn Zethelius, Laura J. Scott, Valgerdur Steinthorsdottir, Andrew P. Morris, Christian Dina, Ryan P. Welch, Eleftheria Zeggini, Cornelia Huth, Yurii S. Aulchenko, Gudmar Thorleifsson, Laura J. Mcculloch, Teresa Ferreira, Harald Grallert, Najaf Amin, Guanming Wu, Cristen J. Willer, Soumya Raychaudhuri, Steve A. Mccarroll, Oliver M. Hofmann, Lu Qi, Ayellet V. Segre, Mandy Van Hoek, Pau Navarro, Kristin Ardlie, Beverley Balkau, Rafn Benediktsson, Amanda J. Bennett, Roza Blagieva, Eric Boerwinkle, Lori L. Bonnycastle, Kristina Bengtsson Bostrom, Bert Bravenboer, Suzannah Bumpstead, Noisel P. Burtt, Guillaume Charpentier, Peter S. Chines, Marilyn Cornelis, David J. Couper, Gabe Crawford, Alex S F Doney, Katherine S. Elliott, Amanda L. Elliott, Michael R. Erdos, Christopher S. Franklin, Martha Ganser, Christian Gieger, Niels Grarup, Todd Green, Simon Griffin, Christopher J. Groves, Candace Guiducci, Samy Hadjadj, Neelam Hassanali, Christian Herder, Paul R V Johnson, Torben Jorgensen, Wen H L Kao, Norman Klopp, Augustine Kong, Peter Kraft, Torsten Lauritzen, Man Li, Aloysius Lieverse, Cecilia M. Lindgren, Valeriya Lyssenko, Michel Marre, Thomas Meitinger, Kristian Midthjell, Mario A. Morken, Peter Nilsson, Katharine R. Owen, John R B Perry, Ann Kristin Petersen, Carl Platou, Christine Proenca, Wolfgang Rathmann, N. William Rayner, Neil R. Robertson, Ghislain Rocheleau, Michael Roden, Michael J. Sampson, Richa Saxena, Beverley M. Shields, Peter Shrader, Gunnar Sigurdsson, Thomas Sparso, Klaus Strassburger, Heather M. Stringham, Qi Sun, Barbara Thorand, Jean Tichet, Rob M. Van Dam, Timon W. Van Haeften, Thijs Van Herpt, Jana V. Van Vliet-Ostaptchouk, G. Bragi Walters, Cisca Wijmenga, Jacqueline C. Witteman, Richard N. Bergman, Stephane Cauchi, Francis S. Collins, Anna L. Gloyn, Ulf Gyllensten, Torben Hansen, Winston A. Hide, Graham A. Hitman, Albert Hofman, David J. Hunter, Kristian Hveem, Markku Laakso, Karen L. Mohlke, Andrew D. Morris, Colin N A Palmer, Peter P. Pramstaller, Igor Rudan, Eric Sijbrands, Lincoln D. Stein, Jaakko Tuomilehto, Andre Uitterlinden, Nicholas J. Wareham, Richard M. Watanabe, Goncalo R. Abecasis, Bernhard O. Boehm, Harry Campbell, Mark J. Daly, Andrew T. Hattersley, Frank B. Hu, James B. Meigs, James S. Pankow, Oluf Pedersen, H. Erich Wichmann, Inês Barroso, Leif Groop, Rob Sladek, Unnur Thorsteinsdottir, James F. Wilson, Thomas Illig, Philippe Froguel, Cornelia M. Van Duijn, Kari Stefansson, David Altshuler, Michael Boehnke, Mark I. McCarthy, Elizabeth K. Speliotes, Sonja I. Berndt, Keri L. Monda, Hana Lango Allen, Reedik Magi, Joshua C. Randall, Sailaja Vedantam, Thomas W. Winkler, Tsegaselassie Workalemahu, Iris M. Heid, Andrew R. Wood, Robert J. Weyant, Karol Estrada, Liming Liang, James Nemesh, Ju Hyun Park, Tuomas O. Kilpelainen, Jian Yang, Tonu Esko, Mary F. Feitosa, Zoltan Kutalik, Massimo Mangino, Andre Scherag, Albert Vernon Smith, Ryan Welch, Jing Hua Zhao, Katja K. Aben, Devin M. Absher, Anna L. Dixon, Eva Fisher, Nicole L. Glazer, Michael E. Goddard, Nancy L. Heard-Costa, Volker Hoesel, Jouke Jan Hottenga, Asa Johansson, Toby Johnson, Shamika Ketkar, Claudia Lamina, Shengxu Li, Miriam F. Moffatt, Richard H. Myers, Marjolein J. Peters, Michael Preuss, Samuli Ripatti, Fernando Rivadeneira, Camilla Sandholt, Nicholas J. Timpson, Jonathan P. Tyrer, Sophie Van Wingerden, Charles C. White, Fredrik Wiklund, Christina Barlassina, Daniel I. Chasman, Matthew N. Cooper, John Olov Jansson, Robert W. Lawrence, Niina Pellikka, Jianxin Shi, Elisabeth Thiering, Helene Alavere, Maria T S Alibrandi, Alice M. Arnold, Thor Aspelund, Larry D. Atwood, Anthony J. Balmforth, Yoav Ben-Shlomo, Sven Bergmann, Heike Biebermann, Alexandra I F Blakemore, Tanja Boes, Stefan R. Bornstein, Morris J. Brown, Thomas A. Buchanan, Fabio Busonero, Francesco P. Cappuccio, Christine Cavalcanti-Proenca, Yii Der Ida Chen, Chih Mei Chen, Robert Clarke, Lachlan Coin, John Connell, Ian N M Day, Martin Den Heijer, Jubao Duan, Shah Ebrahim, Paul Elliott, Roberto Elosua, Gudny Eiriksdottir, Maurizio F. Facheris, Stephan B. Felix, Pamela Fischer-Posovszky, Aaron R. Folsom, Nele Friedrich, Nelson B. Freimer, Mao Fu, Stefan Gaget, Pablo V. Gejman, Eco J C Geus, Anette P. Gjesing, Philippe Goyette, Jurgen Grasler, Danielle M. Greenawalt, Vilmundur Gudnason, Anna Liisa Hartikainen, Alistair S. Hall, Aki S. Havulinna, Caroline Hayward, Andrew C. Heath, Christian Hengstenberg, Andrew A. Hicks, Anke Hinney, Georg Homuth, Jennie Hui, Wilmar Igl, Carlos Iribarren, Kevin B. Jacobs, Ivonne Jarick, Elizabeth Jewell, Ulrich John, Pekka Jousilahti, Antti Jula, Marika Kaakinen, Lee M. Kaplan, Sekar Kathiresan, Johannes Kettunen, Leena Kinnunen, Joshua W. Knowles, Ivana Kolcic, Inke R. König, Seppo Koskinen, Peter Kovacs, Kirsti Kvaloy, Jaana Laitinen, Olivier Lantieri, Chiara Lanzani, Lenore J. Launer, Cecile Lecoeur, Terho Lehtimaki, Guillaume Lettre, Jianjun Liu, Marja Liisa Lokki, Mattias Lorentzon, Robert N. Luben, Barbara Ludwig, Paolo Manunta, Diana Marek, Nicholas G. Martin, Wendy L. McArdle, Anne McCarthy, Barbara McKnight, Olle Melander, David Meyre, Grant W. Montgomery, Rosanda Mulic, Julius S. Ngwa, Mari Nelis, Matt J. Neville, Dale R. Nyholt, Christopher J. O'Donnell, Stephen O'Rahilly, Ken K. Ong, Ben Oostra, Guillaume Pare, Alex N. Parker, Markus Perola, Irene Pichler, Kirsi H. Pietilainen, Carl G P Platou, Ozren Polasek, Anneli Pouta, Suzanne Rafelt, Olli Raitakari, Nigel W. Rayner, Martin Ridderstrale, Winfried Rief, Aimo Ruokonen, Peter Rzehak, Veikko Salomaa, Alan R. Sanders, Manjinder S. Sandhu, Serena Sanna, Jouko Saramies, Markku J. Savolainen, Susann Scherag, Sabine Schipf, Stefan Schreiber, Heribert Schunkert, Kaisa Silander, Juha Sinisalo, David S. Siscovick, Jan H. Smit, Nicole Soranzo, Ulla Sovio, Jonathan Stephens, Ida Surakka, Mari Liis Tammesoo, Jean Claude Tardif, Maris Teder-Laving, Tanya M. Teslovich, John R. Thompson, Brian Thomson, Anke Tonjes, Joyce B J Van Meurs, Gert Jan Van Ommen, Vincent Vatin, Jorma Viikari, Sophie Visvikis-Siest, Veronique Vitart, Carla I G Vogel, Lindsay L. Waite, Henri Wallaschofski, Elisabeth Widen, Susanna Wiegand, Sarah H. Wild, Gonneke Willemsen, Daniel R. Witte, Jacqueline C. Witteman, Qunyuan Zhang, Lina Zgaga, Andreas Ziegler, Paavo Zitting, John P. Beilby, I. Sadaf Farooqi, Johannes Hebebrand, Heikki V. Huikuri, Alan L. James, Alan L. James, Douglas F. Levinson, Fabio Macciardi, Fabio Macciardi, Claes Ohlsson, Lyle J. Palmer, Paul M. Ridker, Michael Stumvoll, Jacques S. Beckmann, Heiner Boeing, Dorret I. Boomsma, Mark J. Caulfield, Stephen J. Chanock, L. Adrienne Cupples, George Davey Smith, Jeanette Erdmann, Henrik Gronberg, Per Hall, Tamara B. Harris, Richard B. Hayes, Joachim Heinrich, Marjo Riitta Jarvelin, Jaakko Kaprio, Fredrik Karpe, Kay Tee Khaw, Lambertus A. Kiemeney, Heiko Krude, Debbie A. Lawlor, Andres Metspalu, Andres Metspalu, Willem H. Ouwehand, Brenda W. Penninx, Brenda W. Penninx, Annette Peters, Thomas Quertermous, Thomas Reinehr, Aila Rissanen, Nilesh J. Samani, Peter E H Schwarz, Alan R. Shuldiner, Timothy D. Spector, Manuela Uda, Timo T. Valle, Martin Wabitsch, Gerard Waeber, Hugh Watkins, Alan F. Wright, M. Carola Zillikens, Nilanjan Chatterjee, Steven A. McCarroll, Shaun Purcell, Eric E. Schadt, Peter M. Visscher, Themistocles L. Assimes, Ingrid B. Borecki, Panos Deloukas, Leif C. Groop, Talin Haritunians, Robert C. Kaplan, Jeffrey R. O'Connell, Leena Peltonen, David Schlessinger, David P. Strachan, H. Erich Wichmann, Kari E. North, Joel N. Hirschhorn, Erik Ingelsson, Alexandra C. Nica, Leopold Parts, Daniel Glass, James Nisbet, Amy Barrett, Magdalena Sekowska, Mary Travers, Simon Potter, Elin Grundberg, Kerrin Small, Asa K. Hedman, Veronique Bataille, Jordana Tzenova Bell, Gabriela Surdulescu, Catherine Ingle, Frank O. Nestle, Paola Di Meglio, Josine L. Min, Alicja Wilk, Christopher J. Hammond, Tsun Po Yang, Stephen B. Montgomery, Steve O'Rahilly, Krina T. Zondervan, Richard Durbin, Kourosh Ahmadi, Emmanouil T. Dermitzakis, Muredach P. Reilly, Hilma Holm, Alexandre F R Stewart, Maja Barbalic, Devin Absher, Zouhair Aherrahrou, Hooman Allayee, Sonia S. Anand, Karl Andersen, Jeffrey L. Anderson, Diego Ardissino, Stephen G. Ball, Timothy A. Barnes, Diane M. Becker, Lewis C. Becker, Klaus Berger, Joshua C. Bis, S. Matthijs Boekholdt, Peter S. Braund, Mary Susan Burnett, Ian Buysschaert, John F. Carlquist, Li Chen, Sven Cichon, Veryan Codd, Robert W. Davies, George Dedoussis, Abbas Dehghan, Serkalem Demissie, Joseph M. Devaney, Patrick Diemert, Ron Do, Angela Doering, Sandra Eifert, Nour Eddine El Mokhtari, Stephen G. Ellis, James C. Engert, Stephen E. Epstein, Ulf De Faire, Marcus Fischer, Jennifer Freyer, Bruna Gigante, Domenico Girelli, Solveig Gretarsdottir, Jeffrey R. Gulcher, Eran Halperin, Naomi Hammond, Stanley L. Hazen, Benjamin D. Horne, Gregory T. Jones, J. Wouter Jukema, Michael A. Kaiser, John J P Kastelein, Genovefa Kolovou, Reijo Laaksonen, Diether Lambrechts, Karin Leander, Mingyao Li, Wolfgang Lieb, Christina Loley, Andrew J. Lotery, Pier M. Mannucci, Seraya Maouche, Nicola Martinelli, Pascal P. McKeown, Christa Meisinger, Pier Angelica Merlini, Vincent Mooser, Thomas Morgan, Thomas W. Mühleisen, Joseph B. Muhlestein, Thomas Münzel, Kiran Musunuru, Janja Nahrstaedt, Christopher P. Nelson, Markus M. Nöthen, Oliviero Olivieri, Riyaz S. Patel, Chris C. Patterson, Flora Peyvandi, Liming Qu, Arshed A. Quyyumi, Daniel J. Rader, Loukianos S. Rallidis, Catherine Rice, Frits R. Rosendaal, Diana Rubin, M. Lourdes Sampietro, Manj S. Sandhu, Eric Schadt, Arne Schäfer, Arne Schillert, Jürgen Schrezenmeir, Stephen M. Schwartz, Mohan Sivananthan, Suthesh Sivapalaratnam, Albert Smith, Tamara B. Smith, Jaapjan D. Snoep, John A. Spertus, Klaus Stark, Monika Stoll, W. H. Wilson Tang, Stephanie Tennstedt, Gudmundur Thorgeirsson, Maciej Tomaszewski, Andre G. Uitterlinden, Andre M. Van Rij, Nick J. Wareham, George A. Wells, Philipp S. Wild, Christina Willenborg, Jaqueline C M Witteman, Benjamin J. Wright, Shu Ye, Tanja Zeller, Francois Cambien, Alison H. Goodall, Winfried Marz, Stefan Blankenberg, Robert Roberts, Ruth McPherson, Jemma C. Hopewell, Sarah Parish, Alison Offer, Louise Bowman, Peter Sleight, Jane Armitage, Richard Peto, Rory Collins, John C. Chambers, Goncalo Abecasis, Nabeel Ahmed, Mark Caulfield, Peter Donnelly, Angad S. Kooner, Mark McCarthy, Nilesh Samani, James Scott, Joban Sehmi, Weihua Zhang, Jaspal S. Kooner, Rona Strawbridge, Maria Sabater-Lleal, Anders Mälarstig, Mai Lis Hellénius, Ferdinand Van't Hooft, Gunnar Olsson, Stephan Rust, Gerd Assmann, Udo Seedorf, Simona Barlera, Gianni Tognoni, Maria Grazia Franzosi, Pamela Linksted, Halit Ongen, Theodosios Kyriakou, Fiona Green, Martin Farrall, Danish Saleheen, Asif Rasheed, Moazzam Zaidi, Nabi Shah, Maria Samuel, Nadeem Mallick, Muhammad Azhar, Khan Zaman, Adbus Samad, Muhammad Ishaq, Ali Gardezi, Fazal Ur Rehman Memon, Philippe Frossard, John Danesh, John Chambers, Jaspal Kooner, Claes Göran Östenson, Lars Lind, Cyrus C. Cooper, Manuel Serrano-Ríos, Ele Ferrannini, Tom J. Forsen, Paul Johnson, François Pattou, George V. Dedoussis, Claudia Langenberg, Anders Hamsten, Jose C. Florez*

*Corresponding author for this work

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