Genome-wide association study accounting for anticholinergic burden to examine cognitive dysfunction in psychotic disorders

Seenae Eum, S. Kristian Hill, Ney Alliey-Rodriguez, James M. Stevenson, Leah H. Rubin, Adam M. Lee, Lauren J. Mills, James L. Reilly, Rebekka Lencer, Sarah K. Keedy, Elena Ivleva, Richard S.E. Keefe, Godfrey D. Pearlson, Brett A. Clementz, Carol A. Tamminga, Matcheri S. Keshavan, Elliot S. Gershon, John A. Sweeney, Jeffrey R. Bishop*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

11 Scopus citations


Identifying genetic contributors to cognitive impairments in psychosis-spectrum disorders can advance understanding of disease pathophysiology. Although CNS medications are known to affect cognitive performance, they are often not accounted for in genetic association studies. In this study, we performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of global cognitive performance, measured as composite z-scores from the Brief Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrenia (BACS), in persons with psychotic disorders and controls (N = 817; 682 cases and 135 controls) from the Bipolar-Schizophrenia Network on Intermediate Phenotypes (B-SNIP) study. Analyses accounting for anticholinergic exposures from both psychiatric and non-psychiatric medications revealed five significantly associated variants located at the chromosome 3p21.1 locus, with the top SNP rs1076425 in the inter-alpha-trypsin inhibitor heavy chain 1 (ITIH1) gene (P = 3.25×E−9). The inclusion of anticholinergic burden improved association models (P < 0.001) and the number of significant SNPs identified. The effect sizes and direction of effect of the top variants remained consistent when investigating findings within individuals receiving specific antipsychotic drugs and after accounting for antipsychotic dose. These associations were replicated in a separate study sample of untreated first-episode psychosis. The chromosome 3p21.1 locus was previously reported to have association with the risk for psychotic disorders and cognitive performance in healthy individuals. Our findings suggest that this region may be a psychosis risk locus that is associated with cognitive mechanisms. Our data highlight the general point that the inclusion of medication exposure information may improve the detection of gene-cognition associations in psychiatric genetic research.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1802-1810
Number of pages9
Issue number10
StatePublished - Sep 2021

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pharmacology
  • Psychiatry and Mental health


Dive into the research topics of 'Genome-wide association study accounting for anticholinergic burden to examine cognitive dysfunction in psychotic disorders'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this