Genome-Wide Identification and Analysis of Genes Encoding Proteolytic Enzymes in Pineapple

Ching Man Wai, Brian Powell, Ray Ming, Xiang Jia Min*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

7 Scopus citations


Pineapple, Ananas comosus, is an economically important fruit crop. Recently its genome was completely sequenced and a total of 27,024 protein coding genes were predicted. Using a set of well evaluated bioinformatics tools we have predicted the protein subcellular locations and comparatively analyzed the protein conserved domains of the predicted proteomes in pineapple, Oryza sativa (rice), Sorghum bicolor (sorghum), and Brachypodium distachyson. Our analysis revealed that ~24–26 % of proteins were located in nucleus, 17–21 % in cytosol, 9–11 % in chloroplast, and 8–11 % proteins were secreted in these monocot plants. The secretomes in the four species were analyzed comparatively and a large number of secreted glycosyl hydrolases were identified. As pineapple proteolytic enzymes, knowns as bromelains, have been used for medical treatments, we focused on genome-wide identification and analysis of pineapple genes encoding proteases. A total of 512 pineapple genes encoding putative proteolytic enzymes were identified, with 152 secreted, 74 localized in cytosol, 67 in nucleus, 60 in chloroplast, 18 in mitochondria, and the remaining in other subcellular locations. The top large protease families in pineapple were papain family cysteine protease (62 genes), peptidase S8 family (56 genes), aspartyl protease family (38 genes), and serine carboxypeptidase (33 genes). Gene expression analysis revealed that among 512 protease genes 432 were expressed in various tissues and 72 genes were differentially expressed. The highly expressed protease genes were identified including 7 papain family cysteine proteases. The protease genes with the predicted protein subcellular locations will facilitate the efforts for examining their biological roles in pineapple growth and development and for expressing the recombinant proteases for medical use. The information of protein subcellular location of all plant species can be accessed at the PlantSecKB website (

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)161-175
Number of pages15
JournalTropical Plant Biology
Issue number3
StatePublished - Sep 1 2016
Externally publishedYes


  • Bromelain
  • Conserved domain
  • Gene expression
  • Protease
  • Proteolytic enzyme
  • Secreted protein
  • Secretome
  • Subcellular locations

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Genetics
  • Plant Science


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