BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular disease mortality related to heart failure (HF) is rising in the United States. It is unknown whether trends in HF mortality are consistent across geographic areas and are associated with state-level variation in cardiovascular health (CVH). The goal of the present study was to assess regional and state-level trends in cardiovascular disease mortality related to HF and their association with variation in state-level CVH. METHODS AND RESULTS: Age-adjusted mortality rates (AAMR) per 100 000 attributable to HF were ascertained using the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s Wide-Ranging Online Data for Epidemiologic Research from 1999 to 2017. CVH at the state-level was quantified using the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. Linear regression was used to assess temporal trends in HF AAMR were examined by census region and state and to examine the association between state-level CVH and HF AAMR. AAMR attributable to HF declined from 1999 to 2011 and increased between 2011 and 2017 across all census regions. Annual increases after 2011 were greatest in the Midwest (β=1.14 [95% CI, 0.75, 1.53]) and South (β=0.96 [0.66, 1.26]). States in the South and Midwest consistently had the highest HF AAMR in all time periods, with Mississippi having the highest AAMR (109.6 [104.5, 114.6] in 2017). Within race‒sex groups, consistent geographic patterns were observed. The variability in HF AAMR was associated with state-level CVH (P<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Wide geographic variation exists in HF mortality, with the highest rates and greatest recent increases observed in the South and Midwest. Higher levels of poor CVH in these states suggest the potential for interventions to promote CVH and reduce the burden of HF.
- Geographic variation
- Health disparities
- Heart failure
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine