Germline mosaicism of PHOX2B mutation accounts for familial recurrence of congenital central hypoventilation syndrome (CCHS)

Casey M. Rand, Min Yu, Lawrence J Jennings, Kelvin Panesar, Elizabeth M. Berry-Kravis, Lili Zhou, Debra E Weese-Mayer*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

12 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Congenital central hypoventilation syndrome (CCHS), a rare disorder characterized by alveolar hypoventilation and autonomic dysregulation, is caused by mutations in the PHOX2B gene. Most mutations occur de novo, but recent evidence suggests that up to 25% are inherited from asymptomatic parents with somatic mosaicism for these mutations. However, to date, germline mosaicism has not been reported. This report describes a family with recurrence of PHOX2B mutation-confirmed CCHS due to germline mosaicism. The first occurrence was a baby girl, noted on day 2 of life to have multiple episodes of apnea, bradycardia, and cyanosis while breathing room air. PHOX2B gene testing confirmed the diagnosis of CCHS with a heterozygous polyalanine repeat expansion mutation (PARM); genotype 20/27 (normal 20/20). Both parents tested negative for this mutation using fragment analysis (limit of detection <1%). Upon subsequent pregnancy [paternity confirmed using short tandem repeat (STR) analysis], amniocentesis testing identified the PHOX2B 20/27 genotype, confirmed with repeat testing. Elective abortion was performed at 21.5 weeks gestation. Testing of abortus tissue confirmed amniocentesis testing. The PHOX2B 20/27 expansion was not observed in a paternal sperm sample. This case represents the first reported family with recurrence of PHOX2B mutation-confirmed CCHS without detection of a parental carrier state or mosaicism, confirming the previously hypothesized possibility of germline mosaicism for PHOX2B mutations. This is an important finding for genetic counseling of CCHS families, suggesting that even if somatic mosaicism is not detected in parental samples, there is still reason for careful genetic counseling and consideration of prenatal testing during subsequent pregnancies.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)2297-2301
Number of pages5
JournalAmerican Journal of Medical Genetics, Part A
Volume158 A
Issue number9
DOIs
StatePublished - Sep 1 2012

Fingerprint

Mosaicism
Recurrence
Mutation
Amniocentesis
Genetic Counseling
Pregnancy
Parents
Genotype
Carrier State
Hypoventilation
Paternity
Cyanosis
Congenital central hypoventilation syndrome
Apnea
Bradycardia
Microsatellite Repeats
Genes
Limit of Detection
Spermatozoa
Respiration

Keywords

  • Congenital central hypoventilation syndrome
  • Germline mosaicism
  • Ondine's Curse
  • PHOX2B

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Genetics
  • Genetics(clinical)

Cite this

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title = "Germline mosaicism of PHOX2B mutation accounts for familial recurrence of congenital central hypoventilation syndrome (CCHS)",
abstract = "Congenital central hypoventilation syndrome (CCHS), a rare disorder characterized by alveolar hypoventilation and autonomic dysregulation, is caused by mutations in the PHOX2B gene. Most mutations occur de novo, but recent evidence suggests that up to 25{\%} are inherited from asymptomatic parents with somatic mosaicism for these mutations. However, to date, germline mosaicism has not been reported. This report describes a family with recurrence of PHOX2B mutation-confirmed CCHS due to germline mosaicism. The first occurrence was a baby girl, noted on day 2 of life to have multiple episodes of apnea, bradycardia, and cyanosis while breathing room air. PHOX2B gene testing confirmed the diagnosis of CCHS with a heterozygous polyalanine repeat expansion mutation (PARM); genotype 20/27 (normal 20/20). Both parents tested negative for this mutation using fragment analysis (limit of detection <1{\%}). Upon subsequent pregnancy [paternity confirmed using short tandem repeat (STR) analysis], amniocentesis testing identified the PHOX2B 20/27 genotype, confirmed with repeat testing. Elective abortion was performed at 21.5 weeks gestation. Testing of abortus tissue confirmed amniocentesis testing. The PHOX2B 20/27 expansion was not observed in a paternal sperm sample. This case represents the first reported family with recurrence of PHOX2B mutation-confirmed CCHS without detection of a parental carrier state or mosaicism, confirming the previously hypothesized possibility of germline mosaicism for PHOX2B mutations. This is an important finding for genetic counseling of CCHS families, suggesting that even if somatic mosaicism is not detected in parental samples, there is still reason for careful genetic counseling and consideration of prenatal testing during subsequent pregnancies.",
keywords = "Congenital central hypoventilation syndrome, Germline mosaicism, Ondine's Curse, PHOX2B",
author = "Rand, {Casey M.} and Min Yu and Jennings, {Lawrence J} and Kelvin Panesar and Berry-Kravis, {Elizabeth M.} and Lili Zhou and Weese-Mayer, {Debra E}",
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Germline mosaicism of PHOX2B mutation accounts for familial recurrence of congenital central hypoventilation syndrome (CCHS). / Rand, Casey M.; Yu, Min; Jennings, Lawrence J; Panesar, Kelvin; Berry-Kravis, Elizabeth M.; Zhou, Lili; Weese-Mayer, Debra E.

In: American Journal of Medical Genetics, Part A, Vol. 158 A, No. 9, 01.09.2012, p. 2297-2301.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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T1 - Germline mosaicism of PHOX2B mutation accounts for familial recurrence of congenital central hypoventilation syndrome (CCHS)

AU - Rand, Casey M.

AU - Yu, Min

AU - Jennings, Lawrence J

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N2 - Congenital central hypoventilation syndrome (CCHS), a rare disorder characterized by alveolar hypoventilation and autonomic dysregulation, is caused by mutations in the PHOX2B gene. Most mutations occur de novo, but recent evidence suggests that up to 25% are inherited from asymptomatic parents with somatic mosaicism for these mutations. However, to date, germline mosaicism has not been reported. This report describes a family with recurrence of PHOX2B mutation-confirmed CCHS due to germline mosaicism. The first occurrence was a baby girl, noted on day 2 of life to have multiple episodes of apnea, bradycardia, and cyanosis while breathing room air. PHOX2B gene testing confirmed the diagnosis of CCHS with a heterozygous polyalanine repeat expansion mutation (PARM); genotype 20/27 (normal 20/20). Both parents tested negative for this mutation using fragment analysis (limit of detection <1%). Upon subsequent pregnancy [paternity confirmed using short tandem repeat (STR) analysis], amniocentesis testing identified the PHOX2B 20/27 genotype, confirmed with repeat testing. Elective abortion was performed at 21.5 weeks gestation. Testing of abortus tissue confirmed amniocentesis testing. The PHOX2B 20/27 expansion was not observed in a paternal sperm sample. This case represents the first reported family with recurrence of PHOX2B mutation-confirmed CCHS without detection of a parental carrier state or mosaicism, confirming the previously hypothesized possibility of germline mosaicism for PHOX2B mutations. This is an important finding for genetic counseling of CCHS families, suggesting that even if somatic mosaicism is not detected in parental samples, there is still reason for careful genetic counseling and consideration of prenatal testing during subsequent pregnancies.

AB - Congenital central hypoventilation syndrome (CCHS), a rare disorder characterized by alveolar hypoventilation and autonomic dysregulation, is caused by mutations in the PHOX2B gene. Most mutations occur de novo, but recent evidence suggests that up to 25% are inherited from asymptomatic parents with somatic mosaicism for these mutations. However, to date, germline mosaicism has not been reported. This report describes a family with recurrence of PHOX2B mutation-confirmed CCHS due to germline mosaicism. The first occurrence was a baby girl, noted on day 2 of life to have multiple episodes of apnea, bradycardia, and cyanosis while breathing room air. PHOX2B gene testing confirmed the diagnosis of CCHS with a heterozygous polyalanine repeat expansion mutation (PARM); genotype 20/27 (normal 20/20). Both parents tested negative for this mutation using fragment analysis (limit of detection <1%). Upon subsequent pregnancy [paternity confirmed using short tandem repeat (STR) analysis], amniocentesis testing identified the PHOX2B 20/27 genotype, confirmed with repeat testing. Elective abortion was performed at 21.5 weeks gestation. Testing of abortus tissue confirmed amniocentesis testing. The PHOX2B 20/27 expansion was not observed in a paternal sperm sample. This case represents the first reported family with recurrence of PHOX2B mutation-confirmed CCHS without detection of a parental carrier state or mosaicism, confirming the previously hypothesized possibility of germline mosaicism for PHOX2B mutations. This is an important finding for genetic counseling of CCHS families, suggesting that even if somatic mosaicism is not detected in parental samples, there is still reason for careful genetic counseling and consideration of prenatal testing during subsequent pregnancies.

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