Gestational age, sex, and time affect urine biomarker concentrations in extremely low gestational age neonates

on behalf of the PENUT Trial Consortium

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Scopus citations


Background: Our understanding of the normative concentrations of urine biomarkers in premature neonates is limited. Methods: We evaluated urine from 750 extremely low gestational age (GA) neonates without severe acute kidney injury (AKI) to determine how GA affects ten different urine biomarkers at birth and over the first 30 postnatal days. Then, we investigated if the urine biomarkers changed over time at 27, 30, and 34 weeks postmenstrual age (PMA). Next, we evaluated the impact of sex on urine biomarker concentrations at birth and over time. Finally, we evaluated if urine biomarkers were impacted by treatment with erythropoietin (Epo). Results: We found that all ten biomarker concentrations differ at birth by GA and that some urine biomarker concentrations increase, while others decrease over time. At 27 weeks PMA, 7/10 urine biomarkers differed by GA. By 30 weeks PMA, 5/10 differed, and by 34 weeks PMA, only osteopontin differed by GA. About half of the biomarker concentrations differed by sex, and 4/10 showed different rates of change over time between males vs. females. We found no differences in urine biomarkers by treatment group. Conclusions: The temporal patterns, GA, and sex differences need to be considered in urine AKI biomarker analyses. Impact: Urine biomarker concentrations differ by GA at birth.Some urine biomarkers increase, while others decrease, over the first 30 postnatal days.Most urine biomarkers differ by GA at 27 weeks PMA, but are similar by 34 weeks PMA.Some urine biomarkers vary by sex in premature neonates.Urine biomarkers did not differ between neonates randomized to placebo vs. Epo.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)151-167
Number of pages17
JournalPediatric research
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jul 2022

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health


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