Glucose management indicator (GMI): A new term for estimating A1C from continuous glucose monitoring

Richard M. Bergenstal*, Roy W. Beck, Kelly L. Close, George Grunberger, David B. Sacks, Aaron Kowalski, Adam S. Brown, Lutz Heinemann, Grazia Aleppo, Donna B. Ryan, Tonya D. Riddlesworth, William T. Cefalu

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

386 Scopus citations


While A1C is well established as an important risk marker for diabetes complications, with the increasing use of continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) to help facilitate safe and effective diabetes management, it is important to understand how CGM metrics, such as mean glucose, and A1C correlate. Estimated A1C (eA1C) is a measure converting the mean glucose from CGM or self-monitored blood glucose readings, using a formula derived from glucose readings from a population of individuals, into an estimate of a simultaneously measured laboratory A1C. Many patients and clinicians find the eA1C to be a helpful educational tool, but others are often confused or even frustrated if the eA1C and laboratory-measured A1C do not agree. In the U.S., the Food and Drug Administration determined that the nomenclature of eA1C needed to change. This led the authors to work toward a multipart solution to facilitate the retention of such a metric, which includes renaming the eA1C the glucose management indicator (GMI) and generating a new formula for converting CGM-derived mean glucose to GMI based on recent clinical trials using the most accurate CGM systems available. The final aspect of ensuring a smooth transition from the old eA1C to the new GMI is providing new CGM anal-yses and explanations to further understand how to interpret GMI and use it most effectively in clinical practice. This Perspective will address why a new name for eA1C was needed, why GMI was selected as the new name, how GMI is calculated, and how to understand and explain GMI if one chooses to use GMI as a tool in diabetes education or management.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)2275-2280
Number of pages6
JournalDiabetes care
Issue number11
StatePublished - Nov 1 2018

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Advanced and Specialized Nursing
  • Internal Medicine
  • Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism


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