Glucose sensing using near-infrared surface-enhanced raman spectroscopy: Gold surfaces, 10-day stability, and improved accuracy

Douglas A. Stuart, Chanda Ranjit Yonzon, Xiaoyu Zhang, Olga Lyandres, Nilam C. Shah, Matthew R. Glucksberg, Joseph T. Walsh, Richard P. Van Duyne*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

176 Scopus citations


This research presents the achievement of significant milestones toward the development of a minimally invasive, continuously monitoring, glucose-sensing platform based on the optical quantitation of glucose in interstitial fluid. We expand our initial successes in the measurement of glucose by surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS), demonstrating substantial improvements not only in the quality and optical properties of the substrate system itself but also in the robustness of the measurement methodology and the amenability of the technique to compact, diode laser-based instrumentation. Herein, we compare the long-term stability of gold to silver film over nanosphere (AuFON, AgFON) substrates functionalized with a partitioning self-assembled monolayer (SAM) using both electrochemical and SERS measurements. AuFONs were found to be stable for a period of at least 11 days. The switch to AuFONs not only provides a more stable surface for SAM formation but also yields better chemometric results, with improved calibration and validation over a range of 0.5-44 mM (10-800 mg/dL). Measured values for glucose concentrations in phosphate-buffered saline (pH ∼7.4) based on 160 independent SERS measurements on AuFONs have a root-mean-square error of prediction of 2.7 mM (49.5 mg/dL), with 91% of the values falling within an extended A-B range on an expanded Clarke error grid. Furthermore, AuFONs exhibit surface plasmon resonances at longer wavelengths than similar AgFONs, which make them more efficient for SERS at near-infrared wavelengths, enabling the use of low-power diode lasers in future devices.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)4013-4019
Number of pages7
JournalAnalytical Chemistry
Issue number13
StatePublished - Jul 1 2005

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Analytical Chemistry

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