Glutathione levels in antigen-presenting cells modulate Th1 versus Th2 response patterns

Jeffrey D. Peterson, Leonore A. Herzenberg, Kristine Vasquez, Carl Waltenbaugh*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

454 Scopus citations


Current thinking attributes the balance between T helper 1 (Th1) and Th2 cytokine response patterns in immune responses to the nature of the antigen, the genetic composition of the host, and the cytokines involved in the early interaction between T cells and antigen-presenting cells. Here we introduce glutathione, a tripeptide that regulates intracellular redox and other aspects of cell physiology, as a key regulatory element in this process. By using three different methods to deplete glutathione from T cell receptor transgenic and conventional mice and studying in vivo and/or in vitro responses to three distinct antigens, we show that glutathione levels in antigen-presenting cells determine whether Th1 or Th2 response patterns predominate. These findings present new insights into immune response alterations in HIV and other disease. Further, they potentially offer an explanation for the well known differences in immune responses in 'Th1' and 'Th2' mouse strains.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)3071-3076
Number of pages6
JournalProceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Issue number6
StatePublished - Mar 17 1998

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General


Dive into the research topics of 'Glutathione levels in antigen-presenting cells modulate Th1 versus Th2 response patterns'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this