Glycogen synthase kinase-3β: A prognostic marker and a potential therapeutic target in human bladder cancer

Sei Naito, Vladimir Bilim, Kaori Yuuki, Andrey Ugolkov, Teiichi Motoyama, Akira Nagaoka, Tomoyuki Kato, Yoshihiko Tomita*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

53 Scopus citations

Abstract

Purpose: Although recent studies have shown glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β), a serine/threonine kinase, as a positive regulator of pancreatic, colon, and kidney cancer cell survival and proliferation, the role of GSK-3 in bladder cancer remains unknown. Our objectives were to determine the subcellular localization of GSK-3β and to evaluate the effect of GSK-3 inhibition in bladder cancer. Experimental Design: We used immunohistochemical staining and nuclear/cytosolic fractionation to determine the expression pattern of GSK-3β in human urothelial carcinomas. To study the effect of GSK-3 inhibition on bladder cancer cell proliferation and survival, we used pharmacologic inhibitors of GSK-3, RNA interference, MTS assay, bromodeoxyuridine incorporation assay, quantitative reverse transcriptase-PCR, and Western blotting. Results: We found aberrant nuclear accumulation of GSK-3β in 62% (43 of 69) and 91% (21 of 23) of noninvasive and invasive human urothelial carcinomas, respectively. GSK-3β nuclear staining was significantly associated with high-grade tumors (P < 0.001), advanced stage of bladder cancer (P < 0.05), metastasis (P < 0.05), and worse cause-specific survival (P < 0.05) in bladder cancer patients. Moreover, we found that pharmacologic inhibition or genetic depletion of GSK-3β resulted in decreased viability of bladder cancer cells. Conclusions: Our results suggest nuclear accumulation of GSK-3β as a novel prognostic marker in bladder cancer, show that GSK-3 contributes to urothelial cancer cell proliferation and survival, and identify GSK-3 as a potential therapeutic target in human bladder cancer.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)5124-5132
Number of pages9
JournalClinical Cancer Research
Volume16
Issue number21
DOIs
StatePublished - Nov 1 2010

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Oncology
  • Cancer Research

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