Goal attainment scaling: A critical review

Solomon Cytrynbaum, Yigal Ginath, Joel Birdwell, Lauren Brandt

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

112 Scopus citations


Available published and unpublished studies on Goal Attainment Scaling (GAS), cur rently the most popular outcome evaluation technique in the human sciences, were cri tically reviewed. Forty-one of ninety-one initial studies, which met minimal criteria of completeness of information reported and quality of research, were subjected to in-depth review. Conclusions were rather mixed and somewhat discouraging. The proliferation m the use of GAS as an evaluative technique has been accompanied by serious procedural and methodological problems. Despite numerous studies, the reliability and validity of GAS remain questionable. More optimistically, GASprocedures can serve a useful educa tional and intervention function, particularly in mental health settings, and patient in volvement in the goal-setting process as defined by GAS seems to enhance therapeutic effectiveness.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)5-40
Number of pages36
JournalEvaluation Review
Issue number1
StatePublished - Feb 1979

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Arts and Humanities (miscellaneous)
  • General Social Sciences


Dive into the research topics of 'Goal attainment scaling: A critical review'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this