Granuloma Annulare

Emily Louise Keimig*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

61 Scopus citations


Granuloma annulare (GA) is a noninfectious granulomatous skin condition that can present with a variety of cutaneous morphologies. It is characterized by collagen degeneration, mucin deposition, and palisaded or interstitial histiocytes. Although the mechanism underlying development of GA is unknown, studies point to a cell-mediated hypersensitivity reaction to an as-yet undetermined antigen. Systemic associations with diabetes, thyroid disorders, lipid abnormalities, malignancy, and infection are described in atypical GA. Treatment is divided into localized skin-directed therapies and systemic immunomodulatory or immunosuppressive therapies. The selected treatment modality should be based on disease severity, comorbid conditions, consideration of potential side effects, and patient preference.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)315-329
Number of pages15
JournalDermatologic clinics
Issue number3
StatePublished - 2015


  • GA diabetes
  • GA etiology
  • GA hyperlipidemia
  • GA infection
  • GA malignancy
  • GA thyroid
  • GA treatment
  • Granuloma annulare (GA)

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Dermatology


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