Use of long period gratings (LPGs) formed in grapefruit photonic crystal fiber (PCF) with thin-film overlay coated on the inner surface of air holes for gas sensing is demonstrated. The finite-element method was used to numerically simulate the grapefruit PCF-LPG modal coupling characteristics and resonance spectral response with respect to the refractive index of thin-film inside the holey region. A gas analyte-induced index variation of the thin-film immobilized on the inner surface of the holey region of the fiber can be observed by a shift of the resonance wavelength. As an example, we demonstrate a 2,4-dinitrotoluene (DNT) sensor using grapefruit PCF-LPGs. The sensor exhibits a wavelength blue-shift of ∼820 pm as a result of exposure to DNT vapor with a vapor pressure of 411 ppbv at 25°C, and a sensitivity of 2 pm ppbv-1 can be achieved.
- gas sensing
- long period grating
- photonic crystal fiber
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics