Ground-state equilibrium thermodynamics and switching kinetics of bistable [2]rotaxanes switched in solution, polymer gels, and molecular electronic devices

Jang Wook Choi, Amar H. Flood, David W. Steuerman, Sune Nygaard, Adam B. Braunschweig, Nicolle N P Moonen, Bo W. Laursen, Yi Luo, Erica Delonno, Andrea J. Peters, Jan O. Jeppesen*, Ke Xu, J. Fraser Stoddart, James R. Heath

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

190 Scopus citations


We report on the kinetics and ground-state thermodynamics associated with electrochemically driven molecular mechanical switching of three bistable [2]rotaxanes in acetonitrile solution, polymer electrolyte gels, and molecular-switch tunnel junctions (MSTJs). For all rotaxanes a π-electron-deficient cyclobis(paraquat-p-phenylene) (CBPQT4+) ring component encircles one of two recognition sites within a dumbbell component. Two rotaxanes (RATTF4+ and RTTF4+) contain tetrathiafulvalene (TTF) and 1,5-dioxynaphthalene (DNP) recognition units, but different hydrophilic stoppers. For these rotaxanes, the CBPQT4+ ring encircles predominantly (> 90%) the TTF unit at equilibrium, and this equilibrium is relatively temperature independent. In the third rotaxane (RBPTTF4+), the TTF unit is replaced by a π-extended analogue (a bispyrrolotetrathiafulvalene (BPTTF) unit), and the CBPQT4+ ring encircles almost equally both recognition sites at equilibrium. This equilibrium exhibits strong temperature dependence. These thermodynamic differences were rationalized by reference to binding constants obtained by isothermal titration calorimetry for the complexation of model guests by the CBPQT4+ host in acetonitrile. For all bistable rotaxanes, oxidation of the TTF (BPTTF) unit is accompanied by movement of the CBPQT4+ ring to the DNP site. Reduction back to TTF0 (BPTTF0) is followed by relaxation to the equilibrium distribution of translational isomers. The relaxation kinetics are strongly environmentally dependent, yet consistent with a single electromechanical-switching mechanism in acetonitrile, polymer electrolyte gels, and MSTJs. The ground-state equilibrium properties of all three bistable [2]rotaxanes were reflective of molecular structure in all environments. These results provide direct evidence for the control by molecular structure of the electronic properties exhibited by the MSTJs.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)261-279
Number of pages19
JournalChemistry - A European Journal
Issue number1
StatePublished - Dec 16 2005


  • Calorimetry
  • Kinetics
  • Molecular devices
  • Rotaxanes
  • Thermodynamics

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Catalysis
  • Organic Chemistry


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