Group 2 innate lymphoid cells are elevated and activated in chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps

Julie A. Poposki, Aiko I. Klingler, Bruce K. Tan, Pejman Soroosh, Homayon Banie, Gavin Lewis, Kathryn E. Hulse, Whitney W. Stevens, Anju T. Peters, Leslie C. Grammer, Robert P. Schleimer, Kevin C. Welch, Stephanie S. Smith, David B. Conley, Joseph R. Raviv, James G. Karras, Omid Akbari, Robert C. Kern, Atsushi Kato*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

89 Scopus citations


Background: Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) with nasal polyps (CRSwNP) is characterized by type 2 inflammation with high levels of Th2 cytokines. Although T helper cytokines are released from T cells, innate lymphoid cells (ILC) are also known to produce high levels of the same cytokines.However, the presence of various types of ILC in CRS is poorly understood. Objective: The objective of this study was to fully characterize the presence of all ILC subsets in CRS and to identify phenotypical differences of group 2 ILC (ILC2) in CRSwNP compared to ILC2 from non-type 2 inflamed areas. Methods: We investigated the presence of ILC subsets in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from healthy subjects, tonsil tissue, ethmoid tissue from control subjects and patients with non-polypoid CRS (CRSsNP) and CRSwNP, as well as nasal polyp (NP) tissue from CRSwNP by flow cytometry. Sorted ILC2 were cultured in the presence and absence of IL-33 and production of IL-5 and IL-13 was assessed by Luminex. Results: We found that all ILC subsets were present in NP but ILC2 were dominant and significantly elevated compared to PBMC, tonsil, CRSsNP, and normal sinus tissue. We also found that inducible T-cell co-stimulator (ICOS) and side scatter were increased and CD127 was down-regulated in ILC2 from NP compared to blood or tonsil ILC2. Thymic stromal lymphopoietin, IL-7, and IL-33 were able to down-regulate expression of CD127 and increase side scatter in blood ILC2. Furthermore, sorted NP ILC2 but not blood ILC2 spontaneously released type 2 cytokines including IL-5 and IL-13. Conclusions and Clinical Relevance: These results suggest that ILC2 are not only elevated but also activated in CRSwNP in vivo and that ILC2 may play important roles in the type 2 inflammation in CRSwNP.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)233-243
Number of pages11
JournalImmunity, inflammation and disease
Issue number3
StatePublished - Sep 2017


  • Chronic rhinosinusitis
  • ILC2
  • Innate lymphoid cells
  • Nasal polyp
  • Type 2 inflammation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Immunology and Allergy
  • Immunology


Dive into the research topics of 'Group 2 innate lymphoid cells are elevated and activated in chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this