Objective: Chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps (CRSwNP) is characterized by a chronic type 2 inflammatory response in the paranasal sinuses. Group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) are potent innate immune cells that contribute to type 2 inflammation by producing cytokines such as interleukin (IL)-4, IL-5, and IL-13. There is increasing evidence suggesting that ILC2s play an important role in the CRSwNP pathogenesis. Data Sources: We reviewed published literature obtained through PubMed inquiries. Study Selections: Studies relevant to the presence, function, and activation of ILC2s in CRSwNP were included. Results: Nasal polyps (NPs) are one of the first tissues in which human ILC2s were discovered, and many groups have since reported that these cells are highly elevated in NPs. ILC2s in NPs are also highly activated and produce type 2 cytokines in vivo. Mediators known to activate ILC2s, including receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-Β ligand, thymic stromal lymphopoietin, various lipid mediators (including prostaglandin D2 and cysteinyl leukotrienes), IL-4, and IL-13 have also been shown to be elevated in NPs compared with healthy sinonasal tissue. Other well-known ILC2 activators, IL-25 and IL-33, are sometimes elevated in NPs in some countries. Furthermore, activation of ILC2s by means of 4 distinct transcriptional pathways (nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells, nuclear factor of activated T cells, signal transducer and activator of transcription 5, and signal transducer and activator of transcription 6) is needed for the most robust generation of type 2 cytokines. Conclusion: ILC2-mediated type 2 inflammation plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of CRSwNP. Targeting the upstream mediators responsible for activating ILC2s and the downstream products that these cells release may play an important role in modifying the inflammatory response and improving clinical outcomes in CRSwNP.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Immunology and Allergy
- Pulmonary and Respiratory Medicine