Growth and pulmonary outcomes during the first 2 y of life of breastfed and formula-fed infants diagnosed with cystic fibrosis through the Wisconsin Routine Newborn Screening Program

Sarah A. Jadin, Grace S. Wu, Zhumin Zhang, Suzanne M. Shoff, Benjamin M. Tippets, Philip M. Farrell, Tami Miller, Michael J. Rock, Hara Levy, Huichuan J. Lai

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

22 Scopus citations

Abstract

Background: The optimal feeding (breast milk, formula, or a combination) for infants with cystic fibrosis (CF) is unknown. Recommendations from the CF Foundation are based on limited data. Objective: We compared growth and pulmonary outcomes between breastfed and formula-fed infants through the age of 2 y. Design: A total of 103 CF infants born in 1994-2006 and diagnosed through newborn screening in Wisconsin were studied. Breastfed infants were classified by the duration of exclusive breastfeeding (ExBF). Exclusive formula-feeding (ExFM) was classified by the formula's caloric density (ie, standard [0.67 kcal/mL (20 kcal/oz) (ExFM20)] throughout infancy or high density [>0.74 kcal/mL (22 kcal/oz) (ExFM22+)] for some duration of infancy). Results: Fifty-three infants (51% of infants) were breastfed and 50 infants (49% of infants) were ExFM. In breastfed infants, the duration of ExBF was <1 mo (53% of infants), 1-1.9 mo (21% of infants), 2-3 mo (17% of infants), and 4-9 mo (9% of infants). In ExFM infants, 23 infants (46%) received a formula with a high caloric density; approximately half (n = 13) of the ExFM infants received the formula by 6 mo of age. Proportionately more infants with pancreatic sufficiency (n = 9) were ExBF >1 mo (44% of infants), and none of the infants were ExFM22+, compared with infants with meconium ileus (n = 24; 13% of infants were ExBF >1 mo, and 38% of infants were ExFM22+) or pancreatic insufficiency (n = 70; 25% of infants were ExBF ≤1 mo, and 20% of infants were ExFM22+) (P = 0.02). In infants with pancreatic insufficiency, weight z scores declined from birth to 6 mo (P < 0.0001) in infants who were ExBF ≥2 mo, and the number of Pseudomonas aeruginosa infections through the age of 2 y was fewer in breastfed than in ExFM infants (P = 0.003) but did not differ by the duration of ExBF. Conclusion: For infants with CF, ExBF <2 mo does not compromise growth and is associated with a respiratory benefit.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1038-1047
Number of pages10
JournalAmerican Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Volume93
Issue number5
DOIs
StatePublished - May 1 2011

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine (miscellaneous)
  • Nutrition and Dietetics

Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of 'Growth and pulmonary outcomes during the first 2 y of life of breastfed and formula-fed infants diagnosed with cystic fibrosis through the Wisconsin Routine Newborn Screening Program'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this