This chapter provides an overview of the growth factors active in bone regeneration and healing. Both normal and impaired bone healing are discussed, with a focus on the spatiotemporal activity of the various growth factors known to be involved in the healing response. The review highlights the activities of most important growth factors impacting bone regeneration, with a particular emphasis on those being pursued for clinical translation or which have already been marketed as components of bone regenerative materials. Current approaches the use of bone grafts in clinical settings of bone repair (including bone grafts) are summarized, and carrier systems (scaffolds) for bone tissue engineering via localized growth factor delivery are reviewed. The chapter concludes with a consideration of how bone repair might be improved in the future.