Growth patterns of uninfected children born to women living with perinatally versus nonperinatally acquired HIV

the Pediatric HIV/AIDS Cohort Study (PHACS)

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations


Objective: The aim of this study was to compare long-term growth between HIV-exposed uninfected children (CHEU) born to women with perinatally acquired HIV (CHEU-PHIV) and CHEU born to women with nonperinatally acquired HIV (CHEU-NPHIV). Design: A longitudinal analysis of anthropometric measurements from a U.S.-based multisite prospective cohort study enrolling CHEU and their mothers since April 2007. Methods: CHEU were evaluated for growth annually from birth through age 5 and again at age 7 years. Z-scores were calculated using U.S. growth references for weight (WTZ), height (HTZ), and weight-for-length or BMI-for-age (WLZ/BMIZ). Mid-upper arm circumference (MUACZ) and triceps skinfold thickness (TSFZ) Z-scores were obtained from ages 1 and 2, respectively, through age 7 years. Piecewise mixed-effects models, overall and stratified by race and sex, were fit to assess differential growth patterns across age by maternal PHIV status. Results: One thousand four hundred fifty-four singleton infants (286 CHEU-PHIV and 1168 CHEU-NPHIV) were included. CHEU-PHIV had slower growth rates than CHEU-NPHIV for WTZ and WLZ/BMIZ at earlier ages and continued to have lower mean WTZ [-0.27, 95% confidence interval (95% CI): -0.50, -0.04] and WLZ/BMIZ (-0.39, 95% CI: -0.67, -0.11) through age 7. Among non-Black boys, CHEU-PHIV had slightly lower WTZ and WLZ/BMIZ at birth than CHEU-NPHIV and these growth deficits persisted through age 7 years. Conclusion: Compared with CHEU-NPHIV, CHEU-PHIV had diminished growth in early childhood with differences most pronounced among non-Black male children. Further longitudinal follow-up of CHEU-PHIV into young adulthood is needed to understand whether these early effects of maternal PHIV status on growth persist and have other health consequences.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)593-603
Number of pages11
Issue number4
StatePublished - Mar 15 2022


  • Child development
  • HIV-exposed uninfected infants
  • Maternal
  • Perinatal HIV infection
  • Postnatal growth

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Infectious Diseases
  • Immunology and Allergy
  • Immunology


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