HAPPE: Human and application-driven frequency scaling for processor power efficiency

Lei Yang, Robert P. Dick, Gokhan Memik, Peter A Dinda

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

26 Scopus citations


Conventional dynamic voltage and frequency scaling techniques use high CPU utilization as a predictor for user dissatisfaction, to which they react by increasing CPU frequency. In this paper, we demonstrate that for many interactive applications, perceived performance is highly dependent upon the particular user and application, and is not linearly related to CPU utilization. This observation reveals an opportunity for reducing power consumption. We propose Human and Application driven frequency scaling for Processor Power Efficiency (HAPPE), an adaptive user-and-application-aware dynamic CPU frequency scaling technique. HAPPE continuously adapts processor frequency and voltage to the learned performance requirement of the current user and application. Adaptation to user requirements is quick and requires minimal effort from the user (typically a handful of key strokes). Once the system has adapted to the user's performance requirements, the user is not required to provide continued feedback but is permitted to provide additional feedback to adjust the control policy to changes in preferences. HAPPE was implemented on a Linux-based laptop and evaluated in 22 hours of controlled user studies. Compared to the default Linux CPU frequency controller, HAPPE reduces the measured system-wide power consumption of CPU-intensive interactive applications by 25 percent on average while maintaining user satisfaction.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number6212506
Pages (from-to)1546-1557
Number of pages12
JournalIEEE Transactions on Mobile Computing
Issue number8
StatePublished - Jul 19 2013


  • CPU frequency scaling
  • Power
  • mobile systems
  • user-driven study

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Software
  • Computer Networks and Communications
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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