Health disparities in transgender and gender expansive adolescents: A topical review from a minority stress framework

Alexandria M. Delozier*, Rebecca C. Kamody, Scott Rodgers, Diane Chen

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

22 Scopus citations


Objective: To present a topical review ofminority stressors contributing to psychosocial and physical health disparities in transgender and gender expansive (TGE) adolescents. Methods: We conducted a topical review of original research studies focused on distal stressors (e.g., discrimination; victimization; rejection; nonaffirmation), proximal stressors (e.g., expected rejection; identity concealment; internalized transphobia), and resilience factors (e.g., community connectedness; pride; parental support) and mental and physical health outcomes. Results: Extant literature suggests that TGE adolescents experience a host of gender minority stressors and are at heightened risk for negative health outcomes; however, limited research has directly applied the gender minority stress framework to the experiences of TGE adolescents. Most research to date has focused on distal minority stressors and single path models to negative health outcomes, which do not account for the complex interplay between chronic minority stress, individual resilience factors, and health outcomes. Research examining proximal stressors and resilience factors is particularly scarce. Conclusions: The gender minority stress model is a helpful framework for understanding how minority stressors contribute to health disparities and poor health outcomes among TGE adolescents. Future research should include multiple path models that examine relations between gender minority stressors, resilience factors, and health outcomes in large, nationally representative samples of TGE adolescents. Clinically, adaptations of evidence-based interventions to account for gender minority stressors may increase effectiveness of interventions for TGE adolescents and reduce health disparities in this population of vulnerable youth.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)842-847
Number of pages6
JournalJournal of pediatric psychology
Issue number8
StatePublished - Sep 1 2020


  • Gender diverse
  • Gender minority
  • Gender minority stress
  • Mental health
  • Physical health
  • Youth

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health
  • Developmental and Educational Psychology


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