Healthy bladder storage and emptying functions in community-dwelling women measured by a 2-day bladder health diary

The Prevention of Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms (PLUS) Research Consortium

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Introduction: The prevalence of healthy bladder storage and emptying function in community-dwelling women is not well established. Methods: A planned secondary analysis of a US cross-sectional study designed to validate a bladder health instrument was conducted in women aged ≥18 years. A subset was invited to complete the novel 2-day bladder health diary capturing bladder storage and emptying experiences. Overall healthy bladder function was defined as ≤8 waking/daytime voids and ≤1 void during sleeping/nighttime; along with the absence of leakage, urgency, emptying difficulties (initiation, flow, efficacy, relief of urge sensation) and pain. Descriptive statistics of healthy bladder functions and regression models of factors associated with healthy function are reported. Results: Of the 383 invited, 237 (62%) eligible women returned complete dairies. Of these, 12% (29/237) met criteria for overall healthy bladder function. Most (96%) denied pain, 74% had healthy daytime and 83% had healthy nighttime voiding frequency, 64% were continent, 36% reported healthy emptying and 30% denied any urgency episodes. Middle income (odds ratio [OR]:95% confidence interval [CI] = 11.4:1.9–67.4 for $75k–$99 999 vs. $25 000–$49 999), Graduate education (4.8:1.4–17) and previously seeking treatment for bladder problems (OR:95%CI = 0.1; 0–0.9) were associated with overall healthy function. Conclusion: The prevalence of overall healthy bladder function was very low based on our strict definition of health as measured on a 2-day diary. However, most women had healthy voiding frequency and denied pain or urinary leakage. Postvoid dribbling and urgency most commonly contributed to an overall unhealthy bladder. Further investigation is needed to determine whether these diary derived measures are meaningful for patient-oriented bladder health research.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)725-735
Number of pages11
JournalNeurourology and Urodynamics
Issue number4
StatePublished - Apr 2023


  • bladder emptying
  • bladder health
  • bladder storage
  • diary
  • nocturia
  • urinary continence
  • urinary frequency

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Clinical Neurology
  • Urology


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