Glenoid component loosening is a common complication of total shoulder arthroplasty and has been associated with the progression of radiolucent lines at the glenoid bone-cement interface. Generation of heat during the exothermic reaction of cement curing may cause osteonecrosis of bone, potentially leading to the development of radiolucent lines. The purpose of this study was to measure the heat generated with various defined amounts of cement used for glenoid component fixation. Ten fresh-frozen cadaver scapulas were randomized to receive a keeled or pegged component with 1, 2, 3, 5, or 7 g of cement for fixation. An infrared camera was used to record the surface temperature generated during the cement curing process to an accuracy of ±2.0°C. Computed tomography was used to evaluate the cement mantle. The maximum temperatures generated did not exceed the critical value for osteonecrosis (56°C) in any of the specimens. The 4 specimens without a complete mantle were those fixed with a smaller quantity of cement (1, 2, or 3 g), and the largest cement mantle thicknesses were observed with the use of 7 g of cement. Up to 7 g of cement can be used without significant concern for thermal necrosis. Incomplete cement mantles were observed when ≤3 g of cement was used for fixation. Our results suggest that surgeons should use >3 g of cement to avoid incomplete cement mantles and that up to 7 g of cement can safely be used for glenoid fixation.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Orthopedics and Sports Medicine