Bedside diagnostic tools remain important in the care of patients with heart failure. Over the past two centuries, cardiac auscultation and phonocardiography have been essential in understanding cardiac pathophysiology and caring for patients with heart disease. Diastolic heart sounds (S3 and S4) and systolic time intervals have been particularly useful in this regard. Unfortunately, auscultation skills have declined considerably, and systolic time intervals have traditionally required carotid pulse tracings. Newer technology allows the automated detection of heart sounds and measurement of systolic time intervals in a simple, inexpensive, noninvasive system. Using the newer system, the authors present data on the hemodynamic correlates of the S3 and abnormal systolic time intervals. These data serve as the foundation for using the system to better understand the test characteristics and pathophysiology of the S3 and systolic time intervals, and help to define their use in improving the bedside diagnosis and management of patients with heart failure.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Emergency Medicine
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine