Amy Halverson*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

25 Scopus citations


Hemorrhoids are normal vascular structures underlying the distal rectal mucosa and anoderm. Symptomatic hemorrhoidal tissues located above the dentate line are referred to as internal hemorrhoids and produce bleeding and prolapse. Thrombosis in external hemorrhoids results in painful swelling. Symptomatic internal hemorrhoids that fail bowel management programs may be amenable to in-office treatment with rubber band ligation or infrared coagulation. Internal hemorrhoids that fail to respond to these measures or complex internal and external hemorrhoidal disease may require a surgical hemorrhoidectomy, either open or closed. A stapled hemorrhoidopexy treats symptomatic internal hemorrhoids and should be employed with care and only after thorough training of the surgeon because of the risk of rare, severe complications. The choice of procedure should be based on the patient's symptoms, the extent of the hemorrhoidal disease, and the experience of the surgeon.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)77-85
Number of pages9
JournalClinics in Colon and Rectal Surgery
Issue number2
StatePublished - 2007


  • Hemorrhoids
  • Internal hemorrhoids
  • Rectal bleeding
  • Stapled hemorrhoidopexy
  • Thrombosed external hemorrhoids

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Surgery
  • Gastroenterology


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