Hemostatic considerations for gender affirming care

Kathleen Garland*, Eric Mullins, Rachel S. Bercovitz, Vilmarie Rodriguez, Jean Connors, Nancy Sokkary

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


Gender dysphoria or gender incongruence is defined as “persons that are not satisfied with their designated gender” [1]. The awareness and evidence-based treatment options available to this population have grown immensely over the last two decades. Protocols now include an Endocrine Society Clinical Practice Guideline [1] as well as the World Professional Association of Transgender Health Standards of Care (WPATH SOC) [2]. Hematologic manifestations, most notably thrombosis, are one of the most recognized adverse reactions to the hormones used for gender-affirming care. Therefore, hematologists are frequently consulted prior to initiation of hormonal therapy to help guide safe treatment. This review will focus on the scientific evidence related to hemostatic considerations for various gender-affirming therapies and serve as a resource to assist in medical decision-making among providers and patients.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)126-132
Number of pages7
JournalThrombosis research
StatePublished - Oct 2023


  • Anticoagulants
  • Estrogens
  • Testosterone
  • Transgender person
  • Venous thromboembolism

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Hematology


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