Hepatic metastasis in gestational trophoblastic neoplasia: Patient characteristics, prognostic factors, and outcomes

Emma L. Barber, Julian C. Schink, John R. Lurain*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

15 Scopus citations


OBJECTIVE: To identify patient characteristics, determine prognostic factors, and evaluate outcomes for women with hepatic metastases in gestational trophoblastic neoplasia (GTN). STUDY DESIGN: Seventeen GTN patients with hepatic metastases were treated at our institution between 1962 and 2010. Demographic data, disease characteristics, and survival were all analyzed retrospectively. Fisher’s exact test was used to determine significance. RESULTS: The median age was 29 years (range, 16–48), and the antecedent pregnancy was nonmolar in 12 patients (75%) and a hydatidiform mole in 4 patients (25%). Fifteen patients (88%) had metastatic disease outside the liver, including lung (13), brain (5), and other intraabdominal organs (8). Median FIGO score was 14 (range, 12–19). Chemotherapy consisted of single-agent methotrexate or actinomycin D in 2 patients; methotrexate, actinomycin D, cyclophosphamide (MAC) in 4 patients; and etoposide, methotrexate, actinomycin D, cyclophosphamide and vincristine (EMACO) in 11 patients. Complete response rate to chemotherapy was 82% for EMA-CO versus 17% for other types of chemotherapy (p=0.035). Overall survival was 41% (7/17). CONCLUSION: Survival of patients with GTN and hepatic metastases increased from 17% (1/6) to 55% (6/11) after 1986 when EMA-CO chemotherapy was introduced. Survival was significantly decreased for patients with concomitant intraabdominal or brain metastases (11% vs. 75%, p=0.015).

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)199-203
Number of pages5
JournalJournal of Reproductive Medicine
Issue number3
StatePublished - Jun 2014


  • Chemotherapy
  • Choriocarcinoma
  • Gestational trophoblastic neoplasia
  • Hepatic metastasis
  • Liver metastasis

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Reproductive Medicine
  • Obstetrics and Gynecology


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