Heterogeneous microstructural evolution during hydrodynamic penetration of a high-velocity copper microparticle impacting copper

Ahmed A. Tiamiyu*, Tyler Lucas, Edward L. Pang, Xi Chen, James M. LeBeau, Christopher A. Schuh

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations


Microparticle hydrodynamic penetration (HDP) may be associated with the erosion regime in cold spray processing and other high-velocity impact events. Here, in an experimental approach where we can individually launch particles and study the impact sites, we explore copper microparticles impacted on copper substrates at velocities above 900 m/s where HDP begins. We lift cross-sectional lamellae from the impact sites with a focused-ion beam for further microstructural characterization using electron backscatter diffraction and scanning transmission electron microscopy. Due to the gradients of strain, strain rate, and temperature associated with HDP, heterogeneous microstructures result. The structural evolution processes observed include deformation twinning and multiple dislocation-mediated grain recrystallization mechanisms—geometric dynamic recrystallization (gDRX), discontinuous DRX (dDRX), and meta DRX (mDRX). The higher strains at the interface lead to the most significant structural changes and complex mechanisms. In contrast, there is a gradient to more conventional dislocation plasticity away from the interface (on either the particle or substrate side). These microstructural observations are consistent with the deformation map for copper and extend the observations of impact-induced recrystallization across new regimes of behavior.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)71-86
Number of pages16
JournalMaterials Today
StatePublished - Jan 2024


  • Cold spray process
  • Dynamic recrystallization
  • High-velocity impact
  • Hydrodynamic particle penetration
  • Metadynamic recrystallization

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Materials Science
  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Mechanics of Materials
  • Mechanical Engineering


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