High-affinity iron (Fe) scavenging compounds, or siderophores, are widely employed by soil bacteria to survive scarcity in bioavailable Fe. Siderophore biosynthesis relies on cellular carbon metabolism, despite reported decrease in both carbon uptake and Fe-containing metabolic proteins in Fe-deficient cells. Given this paradox, the metabolic network required to sustain the Fe-scavenging strategy is poorly understood. Here, through multiple 13C-metabolomics experiments with Fe-replete and Fe-limited cells, we uncover how soil Pseudomonas species reprogram their metabolic pathways to prioritize siderophore biosynthesis. Across the three species investigated (Pseudomonas putida KT2440, Pseudomonas protegens Pf-5, and Pseudomonas putida S12), siderophore secretion is higher during growth on gluconeogenic substrates than during growth on glycolytic substrates. In response to Fe limitation, we capture decreased flux toward the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle during the metabolism of glycolytic substrates but, due to carbon recycling to the TCA cycle via enhanced anaplerosis, the metabolism of gluconeogenic substrates results in an increase in both siderophore secretion (up to threefold) and Fe extraction (up to sixfold) from soil minerals. During simultaneous feeding on the different substrate types, Fe deficiency triggers a hierarchy in substrate utilization, which is facilitated by changes in protein abundances for substrate uptake and initial catabolism. Rerouted metabolism further promotes favorable fluxes in the TCA cycle and the gluconeogenesis-anaplerosis nodes, despite decrease in several proteins in these pathways, to meet carbon and energy demands for siderophore precursors in accordance with increased proteins for siderophore biosynthesis. Hierarchical carbon metabolism thus serves as a critical survival strategy during the metal nutrient deficiency.
|Original language||English (US)|
|Number of pages||12|
|Journal||Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America|
|State||Published - Dec 22 2020|
- Iron limitation
- Pseudomonas putida
ASJC Scopus subject areas