The catabolic enzyme myo-inositol oxygenase (MIOX) is expressed in proximal tubules and up-regulated in the diabetic state. Previously, we reported its transcriptional and translation regulation by high glucose (HG), osmolytes, and fatty acids. However, its epigenetic regulation is unknown. Bisulfite sequencing revealed that both human and mouse MIOX promoters, enriched with CpG sites, are hypomethylated and unmethylated under HG ambience and hyperglycemic states associated with increased MIOX expression. Eletrophoretic mobility shift assays revealed increased binding of unmethylated oligos with nucleoproteins of cells maintained under HG. In addition, a strong binding of specificity protein (Sp)-1 transcription factor with MIOX promoter was observed under HG, especially with unmethylated Sp-1 oligo. Specificity of binding was established by supershift assays and treatment with the Sp-1 inhibitor mithramycin. Promoter analysis revealed an increase in luciferase activity under HG, which was reduced after mutation of the Sp-1–binding site. Sp1 siRNA treatment reduced mRNA and protein expression of Sp-1 and MIOX and generation of reactive oxygen species derived from NADPH oxidase (NOX)-4 and mitochondrial sources. In addition, there was reduced expression of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α relevant in the pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy. Sp1 siRNA treatment reduced fibronectin expression, an extracellular matrix protein that is increased in diabetic nephropathy and tubulopathy. HG-induced MIOX expression was also reduced with the treatment of apelin-13, which deacetylates histones. Overall, these findings highlight the epigenetic regulation of MIOX in the pathogenesis of diabetic tubulopathy.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Pathology and Forensic Medicine