High-performance and low-power source-gated transistors enabled by a solution-processed metal oxide homojunction

Xinming Zhuang, Joon Seok Kim, Wei Huang*, Yao Chen, Gang Wang, Jianhua Chen, Yao Yao, Zhi Wang*, Fengjing Liu, Junsheng Yu, Yuhua Cheng, Zaixing Yang*, Lincoln J. Lauhon*, Tobin Jay Marks*, Antonio Facchetti*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Cost-effective fabrication of mechanically flexible low-power electronics is important for emerging applications including wearable electronics, artificial intelligence, and the Internet of Things. Here, solution-processed source-gated transistors (SGTs) with an unprecedented intrinsic gain of ~2,000, low saturation voltage of +0.8 ± 0.1 V, and a ~25.6 μW power consumption are realized using an indium oxide In2O3/ In2O3:polyethylenimine (PEI) blend homojunction with Au contacts on Si/SiO2. Kelvin probe force microscopy confirms source-controlled operation of the SGT and reveals that PEI doping leads to more effective depletion of the reverse-biased Schottky contact source region. Furthermore, using a fluoride-doped AlOx gate dielectric, rigid (on a Si substrate) and flexible (on a polyimide substrate) SGTs were fabricated. These devices exhibit a low driving voltage of +2 V and power consumption of ~11.5 μW, yielding inverters with an outstanding voltage gain of >5,000. Furthermore, electrooculographic (EOG) signal monitoring can now be demonstrated using an SGT inverter, where a ~1.0 mV EOG signal is amplified to over 300 mV, indicating significant potential for applications in wearable medical sensing and human–computer interfacing.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article numbere2216672120
JournalProceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Issue number3
StatePublished - Jan 17 2023


  • EOG monitoring
  • Kelvin probe force microscopy
  • metal oxide–polymer blend material
  • solution processing
  • source-gated transistor (SGT)

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General


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