Objective To investigate the feasibility of blood oxygen level dependent magnetic resonance imaging (BOLD-MRI) in evaluating human visceral adipose tissue (AT) oxygenation induced by salt loading/depletion and its association with changes in circulating monocyte subsets. Methods A dietary intervention study was performed in 23 healthy volunteers beginning with a 3-day usual diet followed by a 7-day high-salt diet (≥15 g NaCl/day) and a 7-day low-salt diet (≤5 g NaCl/day). BOLD-MRI was used to evaluate oxygenation in perirenal AT. Results Salt loading led to a consistent AT hypoxia (increase in the R2* signal, 25.2 ± 0.90 s-1 vs. baseline 21.5 ± 0.71 s -1, P < 0.001) and suppression of circulating renin-angiotensin- aldosterone system (RAAS), as well as an expansion of the CD14++CD16+ monocytes and monocyte pro-inflammatory activation. In salt depletion phase, the hypoxic state of AT and the expanded CD14++CD16+ monocyte pool were regressed to baseline levels, accompanied by a rebound activation of RAAS. Moreover, AT oxygenation level was positively correlated with the CD14++CD16+ monocytes (r = 0.419, P < 0.001). Conclusions This work provides proof-of-principle evidence supporting the feasibility of BOLD-MRI in monitoring visceral AT oxygenation in humans induced by dietary salt loading/depletion. In addition, the CD14++CD16+ monocytes may participate in the pathogenesis of high-salt intake induced AT hypoxia.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Medicine (miscellaneous)
- Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
- Nutrition and Dietetics