High speed/low dose analytical electron microscopy with dynamic sampling

Karl A. Hujsak, Eric W. Roth, William Kellogg, Yue Li, Vinayak P. Dravid*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

4 Scopus citations


Technological advances in electron microscopy, particularly improved detectors and aberration correctors, have led to higher throughput and less invasive imaging of materials and biological structures by enhancing signal-to-noise ratios at lower electron exposures. Analytical methods, such as electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) and energy dispersive x-ray spectrometry (EDS), have also benefitted and offer a rich set of local elemental and bonding information with nano-or atomic resolution. However, spatially resolved spectrum imaging with EELS and EDS continue to be difficult to scale due to limited detector collection angles or high signal background, requiring hours or even days for full maps. We present the principle and application of a Multi-Objective Autonomous Dynamic Sampling (MOADS) method which can accelerate spectrum mapping in EELS or EDS by over an order of magnitude. Initial guesses about the true spectrum images are constructed as measurements are collected, which allows the prediction of points which contribute information/contrast. In this fashion, an intelligently selected and reduced set of points which best approximate the true spectrum image are autonomously collected on-the-fly to save considerable time and/or radiative area dose. We implemented MOADS as a software add-on to arbitrary commercial Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopes (STEMs) equipped with a Gatan Digital Micrograph (DM, Gatan

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)31-40
Number of pages10
StatePublished - May 2018


  • Dose reduction
  • Dynamic sampling
  • Electron energy loss spectroscopy
  • Energy dispersive X-Ray spectroscopy
  • Machine learning
  • Scanning transmission electron microscopy

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Structural Biology
  • Materials Science(all)
  • Physics and Astronomy(all)
  • Cell Biology

Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of 'High speed/low dose analytical electron microscopy with dynamic sampling'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this