Highly flexible, wearable, and disposable cardiac biosensors for remote and ambulatory monitoring

Stephen P. Lee, Grace Ha, Don E. Wright, Yinji Ma, Ellora Sen-Gupta, Natalie R. Haubrich, Paul C. Branche, Weihua Li, Gilbert L. Huppert, Matthew Johnson, Hakan B. Mutlu, Kan Li, Nirav Sheth, John A. Wright, Yonggang Huang, Moussa Mansour, John A Rogers, Roozbeh Ghaffari*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

152 Scopus citations


Contemporary cardiac and heart rate monitoring devices capture physiological signals using optical and electrode-based sensors. However, these devices generally lack the form factor and mechanical flexibility necessary for use in ambulatory and home environments. Here, we report an ultrathin (~1 mm average thickness) and highly flexible wearable cardiac sensor (WiSP) designed to be minimal in cost (disposable), light weight (1.2 g), water resistant, and capable of wireless energy harvesting. Theoretical analyses of system-level bending mechanics show the advantages of WiSP’s flexible electronics, soft encapsulation layers and bioadhesives, enabling intimate skin coupling. A clinical feasibility study conducted in atrial fibrillation patients demonstrates that the WiSP device effectively measures cardiac signals matching the Holter monitor, and is more comfortable. WiSP’s physical attributes and performance results demonstrate its utility for monitoring cardiac signals during daily activity, exertion and sleep, with implications for home-based care.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number2
Journalnpj Digital Medicine
Issue number1
StatePublished - Dec 1 2018

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Health Information Management
  • Health Informatics
  • Medicine (miscellaneous)
  • Computer Science Applications


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