HMGA2 overexpression is found in 10–15% of leiomyomas (LM). HMGA2 overexpression is common in variants of hydropic, intravenous and lipo-LM. Cellular or highly cellular LM (CLM) is a LM variant with a less well-defined molecular nature. In this study, we identified and examined 52 hypercellular LM with sclerotic collagen, herein defined as cellular leiomyoma with sclerosis (CLM-S). CLM-S shows large tumour size (average 12.2 cm) and characteristic histology of tumour cells, arranged in cellular fascicles, sheets and trabeculae with abundant dense, pink sclerotic extracellular matrix in bands and nodules and increased vascularity. Tumour cells are uniform with small, round–oval nuclei and scant, pale–eosinophilic to vacuolated cytoplasm reminiscent of pericytes. The differential diagnosis of CLM-S includes conventional CLM, endometrial stromal tumours and perivascular epithelioid cell tumour. Immunohistochemical profile [HMGA2, fumarate hydratase, smooth muscle markers, Melan A and HMB-45] and molecular alterations [by HMGA2 mRNA reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction (RT–PCR), HMGA2 fluorescence in-situ hybridisation and MED12 sequencing] were analysed in comparison to matched myometrium and CLM controls. Remarkably, 96% (50 of 52) of CLM-S demonstrated diffuse positive immunoreactivity for HMGA2 and up to an 80-fold increase in HMGA2 mRNA, determined by RT–PCR. FISH analysis with break-part probes at intron 3 and the 5' UTR detected HMGA2 rearrangements in 47% (18 of 38) of CLM-S. All CLM-S retained expression of fumarate hydratase. No MED12 mutations were found in any CLM-S. Our findings show that CLM-S has unique and characteristic histomorphology probably driven by HMGA2 overexpression.
- cellular and sclerosing
- molecular analysis
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Pathology and Forensic Medicine