History and prevalence of gender dysphoria

Tonia Poteat*, Katherine Rachlin, Sean Lare, Aron Janssen, Aaron Devor

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter


The purpose of this chapter is to briefly describe the long history of gender diversity; address difficulties in estimating the number of gender diverse people worldwide and the challenges for researchers and medical and mental health professionals, who wish to define and count this population; to look at the history and utility of Gender Dysphoria as a diagnosis in the DSM-5 and the International Classification of Diseases (ICD); and to provide some historical perspective on the evolution of standards of care over time. It seeks to describe how we got here, how the history of diagnoses has influenced where we are, and how we move forward in the care and management of gender dysphoria. The chapter is divided into four sections: A Short History of Gender Diversity, Being Counted, A Brief Review of Diagnostic Changes over Time, and An Evolution of Guidelines. Each section ends with thoughts on future directions and the need for further work.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationContemporary Endocrinology
PublisherHumana Press Inc.
Number of pages24
StatePublished - 2019

Publication series

NameContemporary Endocrinology
ISSN (Print)2523-3785
ISSN (Electronic)2523-3793


  • Diagnostic criteria
  • Gender diversity
  • Gender dysphoria
  • Gender identity
  • Size estimation
  • Transgender health
  • Transgender history
  • Transsexual

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
  • Endocrinology

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