History of simulation in medicine: From resusci annie to the ann myers medical center

Harminder Singh, Maziyar Kalani, Stefany Acosta-Torres, Tarek Y. El Ahmadieh, Joshua Loya, Aruna Ganju*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

43 Scopus citations


Medical and surgical graduate medical education has historically used a halstedian approach of "see one, do one, teach one." Increased public demand for safety, quality, and accountability in the setting of regulated resident work hours and limited resources is driving the development of innovative educational tools. The use of simulation in nonmedical, medical, and neurosurgical disciplines is reviewed in this article. Simulation has been validated as an educational tool in nonmedical fields such as aviation and the military. Across most medical and surgical subspecialties, simulation is recognized as a valuable tool that will shape the next era of medical education, postgraduate training, and maintenance of certification.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)S9-S14
Issue numberSUPPL. 4
StatePublished - Oct 2013


  • History of simulation
  • Medical Education
  • Neurosurgery
  • Resident Training
  • Simulation
  • SimulationModels
  • Surgical Simulation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Surgery
  • Clinical Neurology


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