HIV-1 Central Nervous System Compartmentalization and Cytokine Interplay in Non-Subtype B HIV-1 Infections in Nigeria and Malawi

Olubusuyi Moses Adewumi*, Elena Dukhovlinova, Nathan Y. Shehu, Shuntai Zhou, Olivia D. Council, Maxwell O. Akanbi, Babafemi Taiwo, Adesola Ogunniyi, Kevin Robertson, Cecilia Kanyama, Mina C. Hosseinipour, Ronald Swanstrom

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

7 Scopus citations


HIV-1 compartmentalization in the central nervous system (CNS) and its contribution to neurological disease have been well documented. Previous studies were conducted among people infected with subtypes B or C where CNS compartmentalization has been observed when comparing viral sequences in the blood to virus in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). However, little is known about CNS compartmentalization in other HIV-1 subtypes. Using a deep sequencing approach with Primer ID, we conducted a cross-sectional study among Nigerian and Malawian HIV-1 cohorts with or without fungal Cryptococcus infection diagnosed as cryptococcal meningitis (CM) to determine the extent of CSF/CNS compartmentalization with CM. Paired plasma and CSF samples from 45 participants were also analyzed for cytokine/chemokine levels. Viral populations comparing virus in the blood and the CSF ranged from compartmentalized to equilibrated, including minor or partial compartmentalization or clonal amplification of a single viral sequence. The frequency of compartmentalized viral populations in the blood and CSF was similar between the CM-and CM+ participants. We confirmed the potential to see compartmentalization with subtype C infection and have also documented CNS compartmentalization of an HIV-1 subtype G infection. Cytokine profiles indicated a proinflammatory environment, especially within the CSF/CNS. However, sCD163 was suppressed in the CSF in the presence of CM, perhaps due to elevated levels of IL-4, which were also a feature of the cytokine profile, showing a distinct cytokine profile with CM.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)490-500
Number of pages11
JournalAIDS research and human retroviruses
Issue number6
StatePublished - Jun 1 2020


  • CNS compartmentalization
  • HIV-1
  • cryptococcal meningitis
  • cytokine

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Infectious Diseases
  • Virology
  • Immunology


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