HIV-1 reservoir size after neonatal antiretroviral therapy and the potential to evaluate antiretroviral-therapy-free remission (IMPAACT P1115): a phase 1/2 proof-of-concept study

Deborah Persaud*, Yvonne Bryson, Bryan S. Nelson, Camlin Tierney, Mark F. Cotton, Anne Coletti, Jennifer Jao, Stephen A. Spector, Mark Mirochnick, Edmund V. Capparelli, Diane Costello, Joseph Szewczyk, Nicol Nicodimus, Lynda Stranix-Chibanda, Adeodata R. Kekitiinwa, Violet Korutaro, Christina Reding, Mary N. Carrington, Sai Majji, Dwight E. YinPatrick Jean-Philippe, Ellen G. Chadwick

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Scopus citations


Background: Infants born with HIV-1 require lifelong antiretroviral therapy (ART). We aimed to assess whether very early ART in neonates might restrict HIV-1 reservoirs, an important step towards ART-free remission. Methods: IMPAACT P1115 is an ongoing, phase 1/2, proof-of-concept study in which infants were enrolled at 30 research clinics in 11 countries (Brazil, Haiti, Kenya, Malawi, South Africa, Tanzania, Thailand, Uganda, the USA, Zambia, and Zimbabwe) into two cohorts. Infants at least 34 weeks' gestational age at high risk for in-utero HIV-1 with either untreated maternal HIV-1 (cohort 1) or who were receiving pre-emptive triple antiretroviral prophylaxis outside of the study (maternal ART permissible; cohort 2) were included. All infants initiated treatment within 48 h of life. Cohort 1 initiated three-drug nevirapine-based ART, and cohort 2 initiated three-drug nevirapine-based prophylaxis then three-drug nevirapine-based ART following HIV diagnosis by age 10 days. We added twice-daily coformulated oral ritonavir 75 mg/m2 and lopinavir 300 mg/m2 from 14 days of life and 42 weeks postmenstrual age. We discontinued nevirapine 12 weeks after two consecutive plasma HIV-1 RNA levels below limit of detection. We tracked virological suppression, safety outcomes, and meeting a predetermined biomarker profile at age 2 years (undetectable RNA since week 48, HIV-1 antibody-negative, HIV-1 DNA not detected, and normal CD4 count and CD4 percentage) to assess qualification for analytical treatment interruption. This study is registered with, NCT02140255. Findings: Between Jan 23, 2015, and Dec 14, 2017, 440 infants were included in cohort 1 and 20 were included in cohort 2. 54 of these infants (34 from cohort 1 and 20 from cohort 2) had confirmed in-utero HIV-1 and were enrolled to receive study ART. 33 (61%) of 54 infants were female and 21 (39%) were male. The estimated probability of maintaining undetectable plasma RNA through to 2 years was 33% (95% CI 17–49) in cohort 1 and 57% (28–78) in cohort 2. Among infants maintaining protocol-defined virological control criteria through to study week 108, seven of 11 (64%, 95% CI 31–89) in cohort 1 and five of seven (71%, 29–96) in cohort 2 had no detected HIV-1 DNA. Ten of 12 (83%, 52–100) in cohort 1 and all seven (100%, 59–100) in cohort 2 tested HIV-1 antibody-negative at week 108. Among 54 infants initiated on very early ART, ten (19%; six in cohort 1 and four in cohort 2) met all criteria for possible analytical treatment interruption. Reversible grade 3 or 4 adverse events occurred in 15 (44%) of 34 infants in cohort 1 and seven (35%) of 20 infants in cohort 2. Interpretation: Very early ART for in-utero HIV-1 can achieve sustained virological suppression in association with biomarkers indicating restricted HIV-1 reservoirs by age 2 years, which might enable potential ART-free remission. Funding: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, and the National Institute of Mental Health.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)e20-e30
JournalThe Lancet HIV
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 2024

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Infectious Diseases
  • Epidemiology
  • Virology
  • Immunology


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