HIV-Exposed, Uninfected Infants in Uganda Experience Poorer Growth and Body Composition Trajectories than HIV-Unexposed Infants

Charlotte E. Lane, Elizabeth M. Widen, Shalean M. Collins, Sera L. Young

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

7 Scopus citations


BACKGROUND: HIV-uninfected infants of HIV-positive women may experience worse growth and health outcomes than infants of HIV-negative women, but this has not been thoroughly investigated under the World Health Organization's most recent recommendations to reduce vertical transmission. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether HIV-exposed and -uninfected (HEU) infants whose mothers received Option B+ have higher odds of experiencing suboptimal growth trajectories than HIV-unexposed, -uninfected infants, and if this relationship is affected by food insecurity. DESIGN: Repeated anthropometric measures were taken on 238 infants (HEU = 86) at 1 week and 1, 3, 6, 9, and 12 months after delivery in Gulu, Uganda. Latent class growth mixture modeling was used to develop trajectories for length-for-age z-scores, weight-for-length z-scores, mid-upper arm circumference, sum of skinfolds, and arm fat area. Multinomial logistic models were also built to predict odds of trajectory class membership, controlling for socioeconomic factors. RESULTS: HEU infants had greater odds of being in the shortest 2 length-for-age z-scores trajectory classes [odds ratio (OR) = 3.80 (1.22-11.82), OR = 8.72 (1.80-42.09)] and higher odds of being in smallest sum of skinfolds trajectory class [OR = 3.85 (1.39-10.59)] vs. unexposed infants. Among HEU infants, increasing food insecurity was associated with lower odds of being in the lowest sum of skinfolds class [OR = 0.86 (0.76-0.98)]. CONCLUSIONS: There continues to be differences in growth patterns by HIV-exposure under the new set of World Health Organization guidelines for the prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV and the feeding of HEU infants in low-resource settings that are not readily identified through traditional mixed-effects modeling. Food insecurity was not associated with class membership, but differentially affected adiposity by HIV-exposure status.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)138-147
Number of pages10
JournalJournal of acquired immune deficiency syndromes (1999)
Issue number2
StatePublished - Oct 1 2020

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Infectious Diseases
  • Pharmacology (medical)


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