HIV status, age at cervical Cancer screening and cervical cytology outcomes in an opportunistic screening setting in Nigeria: A 10-year Cross sectional data analysis

Jonah Musa*, Chad J. Achenbach, Charlesnika T. Evans, Neil Jordan, Patrick H. Daru, Olugbenga Silas, Atiene S. Sagay, Rose Anorlu, Supriya D. Mehta, Firas Wehbe, Melissa A. Simon, Isaac F. Adewole, Lifang Hou, Robert L. Murphy

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle


Background: Invasive cervical cancer (ICC) is more prevalent in HIV infected women and occurs at younger median age than in HIV negative women. Organized cervical cancer screening (CCS) is presently lacking in Nigeria, and the age at CCS is not known in this population. We sought to examine the age at CCS, the cytology outcomes and whether outcomes differ by HIV infection status in an opportunistic screening setting. Methods: Cross-sectional analysis of data on a sample of women who had received a CCS in an opportunistic screening service in Jos, Nigeria over a 10-year time period (2006-2016). We used logistic regression models to estimate the independent effect of patient-reported HIV and age at CCS and odds ratios for abnormal cytology outcomes adjusting for other covariates. We also assessed the correlation between median age at CCS and severity of abnormal cervical cytology outcomes. Statistical analyses were done on STATA version 14, College Station, Texas, USA. Results: In a sample of 14,088, the median age at CCS was 37 years (IQR; 30-45). For HIV infected women vs. uninfected women, CCS occurred at earlier ages (35.0 ± 7.4 vs 38.2 ± 10.2 years, p < 0.001). All women, regardless of HIV status, who completed at least 7 or more years of education were 1.27 to 3.51 times more likely to have CCS before age 35 than women with less education. The predictors of an abnormal cervical cytology outcome at CCS were: Age at CCS ≥ 35 (aOR = 3.57; 95% CI: 2.74, 4.64), multiparity ≥5 (aOR = 1.27; 95% CI: 1.03, 1.56), and provider-referral (aOR = 1.34; 95% CI: 1.09, 1.64). Irrespective of reported HIV status, we found a positive correlation between median age at CCS and severity of cytology outcome. Discussion: The age at CCS in women who have utilized cervical cancer screening in the study population is relatively late compared to the recommended age by most guidelines from developed settings. Late age at CCS correlates positively with severity of abnormal cytology outcome irrespective of HIV status. More educated women are more likely to have CCS at early age and less likely to have underlying abnormal cytology outcomes.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number43
JournalInfectious Agents and Cancer
Issue number1
StatePublished - Nov 29 2019



  • Age at screening
  • Cervical cancer screening
  • Cytology outcome
  • HIV status
  • Nigeria
  • Opportunistic screening

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Epidemiology
  • Oncology
  • Infectious Diseases
  • Cancer Research

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