Hospitalization Trajectories and Risks of ESKD and Death in Individuals With CKD

CRIC Study Investigators

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

5 Scopus citations


Introduction: Management of chronic kidney disease (CKD) entails high medical complexity and often results in high hospitalization burden. There are limited data on the associations of longitudinal hospital utilization patterns with adverse clinical outcomes in individuals with CKD. Methods: We derived cumulative all-cause hospitalization trajectory groups using latent class trajectory analysis in 3012 participants of the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort (CRIC) Study who were alive and did not reach end-stage kidney disease (ESKD) within 4 years of study entry. Cox proportional hazards models tested the associations between hospitalization trajectory groups and risks of ESKD and death prior to the onset of ESKD (ESKD-censored death). Results: Within 4 years of study entry, there were 5658 hospitalizations among 3012 participants. We identified 3 distinct subgroups of individuals with CKD based on cumulative all-cause hospitalization trajectories over 4 years: low-utilizer (n = 1066), intermediate-utilizer (n = 1802), and high-utilizer (n = 144). High-utilizers represented a patient population of lower socioeconomic status who had a greater prevalence of comorbid conditions and lower kidney function compared with intermediate- and low-utilizers. After the 4-year ascertainment period to form the trajectory subgroups, there were 544 ESKD events and 437 ESKD-censored deaths during a median follow-up time of 5.1 years. Compared with low-utilizers, intermediate-utilizers and high-utilizers were at 1.49-fold (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.22–1.84) and 1.75-fold (95% CI 1.20–2.56) higher risk of ESKD in adjusted analyses, respectively. Compared with low-utilizers, intermediate-utilizers and high-utilizers were at 1.48-fold (95% CI 1.17–1.87) and 2.58-fold (95% CI 1.74–3.83) higher risk of ESKD-censored death in adjusted analyses, respectively. Conclusions: Trajectories of cumulative all-cause hospitalization identify subgroups of individuals with CKD who are at high risk of ESKD and death.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1592-1602
Number of pages11
JournalKidney International Reports
Issue number6
StatePublished - Jun 2021


  • chronic kidney disease
  • end-stage kidney disease
  • hospital utilization
  • hospitalization
  • trajectory

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Nephrology


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