How to conduct cost and value analyses in health professions education: AMEE Guide No. 139

Jonathan Foo, David A. Cook, Martin Tolsgaard, George Rivers, Jennifer Cleland, Kieran Walsh, Mohamed Elhassan Abdalla, You You, Dragan Ilic, Robert Golub, Henry Levin, Stephen Maloney*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

11 Scopus citations


Growing demand for accountability, transparency, and efficiency in health professions education is expected to drive increased demand for, and use of, cost and value analyses. In this AMEE Guide, we introduce key concepts, methods, and literature that will enable novices in economics to conduct simple cost and value analyses, hold informed discussions with economic specialists, and undertake further learning on more advanced economic topics. The practical structure for conducting analyses provided in this guide will enable researchers to produce robust results that are meaningful and useful for improving educational practice. Key steps include defining the economic research question, identifying an appropriate economic study design, carefully identifying cost ingredients, quantifying, and pricing the ingredients consumed, and conducting sensitivity analyses to explore uncertainties in the results.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)984-998
Number of pages15
JournalMedical Teacher
Issue number9
StatePublished - 2021


  • cost-effectiveness
  • costs and cost analysis
  • economics
  • health professions education
  • medical education

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Education


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